BROMELIACEAE plants family has about 60 genera with more than 3,000 different species that come from the tropical part of the American continent. Named in honor of the Swedish Zoologist and Botany Gustav Bilberg. Many are popular in indoor culture, they are not capricious in care.
With its bizarre leaves and flowers, they have a special kind that distinguishes them from other ornamental plants. Types vary greatly in shape, size and color. This family includes a variety of plants that resemble scarlet, Yuki, green leafy herbs. Evergreen grassy plants mainly consist of a rosette of the leaves, in the center of which unfolding colored bracts with small flowers on the top.
Additional information!you need to be careful because most species have very sharp spikes surrounding the edges of the leaves. Hold them out of an inaccessible place for small children and curious animals.
Almost all representatives of the Bromelle family have a short stem. Some leaves are wide and dense (they are needed to collect moisture), others are thin with the help of hairs and scales catch moisture.
The fact that at first glance seems like a flower in fact bright bracts. The top leaves during flowering are becoming red, yellow, and sometimes blue. Real flowers of small sizes are usually falling in a few days.
Most of the grown bromels at home are epiphytic plants. These plants in wildlife grow on trees and other plants, but do not parasitize on them. Epiphylet bromels do not have roots, but have hairs or suction flakes on the leaves.
With their help, they can absorb nutrients and moisture directly from the air. The cultivation of these plants is very similar to the cultivation of orchids.
How to grow bromels?
The care method is different from the care of other plant species. It is easy to grow them as a room plant. They need to create conditions similar to the conditions of these plants in their natural habitat.
Bromelia – relatively slow-growing plants. They do not pass the rest period.
The species that grow in the soil are best placed in a permeable, not containing the lime of the land, where they are rapidly rooted. Most bromelias are usually planted in a soil and sand mixture. It is often perfect for a mixture of 2/3 of soil on a peat-based and 1/3 of sand. The substrate for bromelia should, first of all, provide the perfect air circulation and immediate removal of excess water from the roots of plants.
Many epiphytic bromelia can be grown in pots with a permeable weakly acid substrate. Like orchids, planted in a rough, permeable substrate from the bark of trees and peat moss (spahum).
The right vases is also important for sufficient air circulation. Bromelia prefer small pots.
They must have additional holes at the bottom. Translucent plastic pots are the perfect choice for growing epiphytic bromels. Such pots are missing to roots, easy to handle and, in addition, can be observed for the state of the root system of the plant.
Lighting and Temperature
Different types impose different requirements for sunlight, but in any case it should be an indirect light (direct sunlight can burn the leaves, especially on the southern window). Sorts with soft flexible leaves usually prefer a lower level of light, and with rigid solid leaves – bright indirect light. If the light intensity is low, the leaves are losing color and dump.
Please note! Do not put the plant directly on the window coming to the south. It is likely that the leaves will dry under the right sunlight.
Bromels like a higher humidity that can be ensured by humidifying air or regular spraying with water. Plants are adapted, and can cope with a dry room.
Tropical plants love heat, optimal temperature for their growth – from 20 to 25 ° C.
Bromelia drought-resistant, in general enough to water these plants moderately once a week during the growing season and limit watering during the winter holiday.
Most of them are better tolerant drought than excess moisture. Between irrigations, the substrate should have time to dry. They are adapted to hold water in the central socket, so they can be watered over the leaves, and the plant slowly absorbs this water.
Important! For irrigation, use soft water that does not contain minerals. It is not recommended to use a metal container, since these plants are sensitive to the metal.
At home, bromelia gets from the substrate only minimum nutrients, so they must be administered to a plant in the form of fertilizers. Plants are sensitive to high concentrations of nutrients, and since they grow slowly, they do not need a large number of fertilizers. When feeding is made in watering only half of the dose of liquid feeding.
Bromellese transplant if:
- at the plant after flowering, several side shoots moved;
- roots grew up pot;
- Substrate begins to collapse and prevents the ventilation roots
- Bromelia has grown, it is unstable and easily overturns.
If none of these situations arises, they are not transplanted, since these plants do not like anxiety. Transplanting Bromelia during flowering – not the best idea.
After driving the plant from the pot, they clean it from the old substrate, and transferred to a new pot on the bottom of which the drainage layer of small pebbles is laid. Then add a new substrate.
After the transplantation, the room flower goes into vegetative peace, so it does not fertilize for several months, and cutting it up to a minimum until it resumes his height.
Each plant of this family blooms only once. The above-ground part usually lives only 1-3 years, and the life cycle usually ends after 3-6 months of flowering.
Bromelia can be breeding vegetatively, separating the side shoots. After the flowering period, they expel one or several side shoots, which can be multiplied. Transplanting through side shoots – the most reliable way of reproduction. From the parent plant, the shoots are separated with a small part of the roots, and plant a separate pot with a substrate.
Draw only dry parts of leaves, stems and roots, and not green parts.
Young plants bloom after 3-4 years, after moving the old. They need relatively certain conditions for flowering, and these conditions vary from type of point. The flowering cycle affects the duration of the day, temperature, humidity, watering and fertilizer.
How to make bromelia bloom? You can speed up the beginning of the bloom of young plants by placing them in a transparent plastic package for up to 10 days together with a ripe apple. Gas from ripe fruits allocates ethylene, which is used to accelerate flowering.
Perfect place for growing bromelia in the house
Many bromelia are epiphyts, and they can be switched. Tillandsia are known as air plants, and can create a beautiful view.
Tellandia without roots
Most of the species of this kind love indirect light. Regularly spray these plants, because they get water through flakes on the leaves, and not through the roots.
There are bromels that grow well at dry conditions. Types of Dyckia and Hechtia are adapted to a clean and arid climate. With these bromels do not need to worry about humidity, they feel good in straight sunshine. You can safely place these bromels on the window overlooking the south.
Bromelia is resistant to pests and diseases. Especially dangerous for them dry air. Problems occur more often with a lack of light and excess water. Conventional phenomenon – brown leaf tips. This is usually due to too strong heating or dry air. You can neatly cut the edges of the leaves with brown tips. Change location will give results.
Bromelia is rarely affected by various viral or bacterial infections that are usually manifested by spots on the leaves and stems. A frequent disease is to rotten the roots due to insufficient permeability of the substrate and insufficient ventilation. Therefore, an important part of the care is to ensure constant ventilation of the root system of these plants.
types of bromelian, which are easy to grow
Of the dozen species of room plants, the most famous species that are easy to care for: Guzmania, Achmea (Achmea), Tyndsia (Tillandsia), Wrisea (Vriesea), Cryptantus (Cryptanthus), Neoregelia (Neoregelia).
Most of them are epiphytic tropical plants that feel well in the interior.
Ananas ComoSus is a famous representative of this group of plants.
Husmania is popular with producers mainly due to bright colors (red, yellow, pink, orange or white). These are epiphytic plants. They are easy to care for them.
Thanks to its beauty and unpretentiousness of Huszyany, it became the most popular bromeliene at home.
Ahmeoy with pink flower and green and silvery leaves. As indoor plants, the most famous striped Achmea (Achmea Fasciata). Aechmea withstands less light and does not require much care, so suitable for newcomers.
Thyndia is epiphylet plants that can live without a substrate and therefore they are often called “air” flowers, grow suspended in the air, which creates a very interesting effect.
The roots are partially covered only by a small amount of moss and watering is carried out as spraying. A well-known Tyndsy blue (Tillandsia Cyanea), for which beautiful pink shoots with small purple flowers are characteristic.
Vrisema is distinguished by a beautiful oven stem. Adapt to different lighting conditions (from shadow to bright places), and it is not difficult for them to care.
The most famous representative of the genus Vriezea is perhaps Vriezea Splendens, which is interesting for its brown-green outlet of the leaves and a bright red flower.
Cryptantus, unlike most bromelievis, is not an epiphylet plant and has a more powerful root system. It requires a permeable substrate that retains moisture. Most have a low rosette of star leaves, which can have a rich colors palette: pink, red, silver to motley. Cryptanthus is rather growing due to interesting texture of the leaves, as its small flowers are less pronounced.
Neorelegelia is grown mainly due to their attractive pattern on the leaves (marble, cracked, striped.) In the rosette of the leaves, they hold water from which the nutrients retrieve.