Features of cultivation of tomato seedlings. How to grow seedlings of tomato
Tomatoes are very sensitive to sudden changes in weather conditions, so the indoor environment is grown tomato seedlings, planted in the soil to a healthy young plants, which are resistant to various weather conditions.
Useful information! Healthy seedlings are less susceptible to disease, and more resistant to horticultural pests and weeds, as well as the influence of weather conditions than young plants planted in open ground. Besides seedlings it allows you to get an earlier harvest.
Tomato seeds germinate very quickly. Tomatoes – plant is in need of warmth and light. To tomato seeds germinate rapidly, the optimum temperature is 21 ° C, and seedlings germinate after about 5 days. If the temperature is below 16 ° C, germination will occur only after a week or 10 days, with a higher risk of rotting seeds. To make the tomato plants develop as much as possible, they need a temperature difference of 10 ° C between day and night ??.
The great need of plants to light. Optimal conditions – 14 hours of sunlight per day. If they do not have 14 hours of light the sun, they will grow more slowly. It is better to wait a few weeks later and sow, to sow tomato plants are always catching up with those that were sown earlier, because the sunlight longer (the days are getting longer), and a temperature higher plant growth is faster.
Planting tomato seedlings can begin in late February or early March to late April. At this time you need to prepare for sowing the seeds. If the seedlings are planted in open ground, rather than in a greenhouse seeds should be sown later – in mid-March. In general, the time of sowing the seeds before planting takes place 52-58 days, so based on this period and the weather forecast (the soil ready), you can schedule the exact date.
Note!It is important to know that overgrown seedlings will be weak, so sow the seeds of tomatoes too early is not good.
Disadvantages sowing too early:
- require the use of artificial lighting to give the plants enough light;
- it is necessary to warm up the place to the young plants had sufficient temperature for their growth.
- when they reach the age of 2 months, and outdoors is not warm enough, they will grow in pots.
The soil for tomatoes
The soil should be nutritious, so the area where grow tomatoes, prepared in advance in the autumn. For the soil should be added to the compost (humus), crushed egg shells and wood ash. Tomatoes like a high content of organic matter in the soil, nitrogen, potassium, unlike most vegetables.
Important!The seedlings need to be planted in warm soil. In order not to damage the root system in a tomato, before planting need to install the support to which will tie up tomatoes.
Tomato seedlings planted at a depth of the first leaves (very elongated seedlings to the second and third leaflets, carefully putting the stem in the landing fossa) This contributes to the enhanced capacity of the root system of the plant.
Pasynkovanie and formation of tomatoes (tomatoes)
Proper formation of the bush tomato is one of the most important moments in his cultivation. Furthermore pasynkovanie tomatoes (topping lateral shoots) is recommended to remove the lower leaves of tomato shoots before each new ovary. So on a tomato plant are only 3-4 top leaves, which he was quite enough to photosynthesis and nutrition. Such formation bush tomato, firstly, provides better access to light and air to the plant and the fruit reduces the risk of fungal diseases and, secondly, provides more abundant and earlier harvests.
Note!In the hot sunny regions so badly cut tomatoes are not recommended, because the leaves protect the fruits of tomatoes from overheating and burns.
The brightness of the light and the air temperature for tomatoes
For normal development of tomatoes need average temperature of +17 to +28 C. At lower temperatures, the growth slows down and at higher – tomatoes begin to fade. Direct sunlight is important for the formation of flowers and flowering period, and at a stage of development and ripening of tomato heat becomes more important than the direct sunlight.
Dry and fresh air around tomatoes – one of the main conditions for their growth and disease resistance. Be sure to ventilate the greenhouse with tomatoes in hot weather, set the fans as needed.
Tomatoes love the abundant but not very frequent watering at the roots. Such watering helps the plant to generate deep and extensive root system.
Excess irrigation lead to a deterioration in taste tomato fruit cracking and reset, as well as tomatoes become more vulnerable to fungal diseases. Insufficient or uneven watering (when the soil dries) – to cracking and tomato apical rot. When watering is important to avoid getting water on the trunk, leaves and fruit – it promotes the development of fungi.
fertilizer for tomatoes
To gather a rich harvest, tomatoes need to provide all the necessary trace elements; with a period of picking seedlings to the early flowering of tomatoes should be feeding a complex mineral fertilizer. After the formation of the first fruits, the main attention should be paid to feeding on the basis of potash. After formation of first fruits begin tomatoes fertilized fertilizer special for tomatoes (based on potassium). Wood ash is alkaline and contains 5% potassium.
In the artificial pollination of tomatoes do not need – it is the culture of self-pollinating. It churns out high-quality pollen that can pollinate their own flowers and nearby. However, to ensure self-pollination and produce more fruit, it is possible for the entire period of flowering every 2-3 days to shake each plant.
To improve the taste of tomato planted therebetween honey plants, annuals (basil and marigolds).
Pests and diseases of tomato
Tomato is one of the most cultivated plants in the garden, but unfortunately, he is the victim of many pests that cause damage and threaten the crop. Due to errors agronomic service or location plants are weakened and more susceptible to fungi, bacteria or pests.
Different Tomato diseases and pests can be a serious problem when growing tomatoes in the greenhouse, and is a big problem when grown in open ground. The most common zabolevaniya.Tomaty amazing and different types of rot: top, white, brown. One of the most dangerous fungal disease of tomatoes – late blight or brown rot of fruits, is the most common disease of tomatoes. He appears mainly during the wet and rainy summer and spreads rapidly, usually causes rotting of the fruits already formed, and then the death of the plant. Without the intervention of the tomato plant quickly dies. To protect plants from brown rot is very important is a good circulation of air between the leaves.
Tomato plants require constant attention to ensure a rich harvest. Since you can plant and harvest their own tomatoes using these practical tips.