Origin and description of primrose
The genus of the primrose family includes more than 500 species, and is constantly replenished due to new crosses. The perennial is widely distributed throughout almost all of Europe. In nature, it is found in hilly and mountainous places, and during the flowering period it can be seen on forest edges, where the soil is rich in humus.
All primroses are small plants, and depending on the species they grow from 10 to 40 cm. In the garden, primrose is grown as borders and in rock gardens. A small bush strewn with flowers looks spectacular in a flower bed.
Primroses are small plants
All primroses are small plants A variety of species have common characteristics: perennial, deciduous, herbaceous plants that form an underground network of rhizomes. They are hardy and unpretentious, making them popular garden plants. Most primroses tolerate frost.
Flowering time most often falls on the period from February to May, but there are varieties that bloom in summer. Short-stemmed shoots appear from the rhizome in spring, and form a rosette of leaves, and later a peduncle grows up to 25 cm high with an inflorescence. The flowers are large, with a bright and variegated color.
Flowers with bright and variegated color
On one peduncle, from 3 to 10 inflorescences can bloom at the same time. Five-petaled flowers of the correct form, with a touch of yellow at the base. There are different shapes and colors, as well as two-color, three, and even four-color varieties.
The leaves are rounded, with a jagged and slightly wavy edge, form a small bush. In some varieties, the leaves are covered with a gray-green wax coating.
Perennial primrose is unpretentious, and quickly adapts to any conditions. Plant them in the garden in spring or autumn. After flowering, the primrose has a dormant period until the end of July. Then the growth of the leaves resumes. From this point of view, the best primroses are transplanted in the spring.
They grow best in semi-shady parts of the garden with moist soil, although they can grow in full sun if sufficient moisture is provided. Where space allows, they will quickly spread through the rhizome.
Primroses do not like drought and the scorching summer sun. The soil is kept moist, but this does not mean that the plant can be flooded. If it sits in water for a long time, the roots may rot. Water it from below so that the flowers and leaves do not touch the water.
A complete fertilizer can be used for spring growth. Use slow acting fertilizers. This releases the nutrients evenly and the plant is supplied with them over a longer period of time. Further fertilization during the growing season is not required if the soil is rich in humus.
Primula can be propagated by seeds, dividing the bush and leafy cuttings. At home, reproduction is usually chosen by dividing the stem.
Seeds are more difficult to propagate. Primula form underground rhizomes, and after flowering, it can simply be divided with a shovel and planted further. Dividing and transplanting stems rejuvenates them.
Divide the rhizomes in early spring, but can be carried out from September to April. The bush is cut in half so that both parts have approximately the same number of roots, and planted separately.
Additional Information! Primroses can also be propagated by seeding, which requires more attention. Seeds can be bought at a specialized store, or collected by yourself after flowering. Seeds need exposure to cold, they are kept for 3-4 weeks in a refrigerator or in a cool room at a temperature of 4-10 C.
Very small seeds are sown in peat in spring. For germination, keep in a sunny and humid place at a temperature of 15-22 C. 10-30 days after emergence, small plants can be transplanted into slightly acidic soil. Primula, propagated from seeds, will bloom for the first time next spring.
The method of propagating primrose with a leaf is convenient if you need to get it in several copies, and when it is not possible to divide the bush. The rooting process lasts quite a long time, at least 3-4 months.
Primrose plants are extremely disease resistant. If the soil is too wet, gray or stem rot can occur. The disease manifests itself in the withering of the leaves. Sick plants are destroyed. Pest infestation is rarely seen in primroses.
In the beds, they are usually quite frost-resistant. Primrose should be covered only during severe night frosts.
Traditional medicine uses the root for gout, rheumatism, whooping cough, asthma, nervous disorders, spasms and indigestion, migraines and heart failure. The roots contain saponins, so it dissolves bronchial secretions well, helps with a runny nose, and relieves coughing. The flowers also have an expectorant effect. They can be added to tea mixture against colds.
Note! At observance of a dosage side effects were not observed. Hairs on the leaves and even touching the flower can cause skin redness, rashes and blistering in those who are sensitive to them, especially young children. Overdose may cause diarrhea and nausea.
Varieties of primroses
Primrose comes in a variety of varieties: large and small. Among the primroses, the most famous variety is the common primrose, which is only 5-15 cm high, and is often called stemless primroses. Stemless primrose can be found not only in gardens, but also in nature. Many types of hybrids have been bred from it.
The stemless primrose with large flowers appeared as a result of crossing the common primrose and the spring primrose. Dark green leaves with rounded ends, forming a basal rosette. Large flowers develop on short stems above the foliage, forming a globular bouquet.
Primrose ear has large petals with wavy edges. Often inflorescences are monochromatic,
Spring primrose is a beautiful border plant. The flowers are umbellate, the leaves are elongated. Its leaves, flowers and roots have medicinal properties.
Primula ash – a large primrose. The stems have a whitish coating. On one stem grows up to 6-8 flowers, growing on top of each other!
Primrose toothed – undersized perennial. Globular inflorescences open in early spring on stems 20-30 cm long. The flowers are collected in very beautiful small balls, which consist of many small flowers.
Japanese primrose is a rare, beautiful primrose. Late blooming primrose opens dark red flowers from early to mid-summer. Multi-tiered inflorescences are located on tall stems. Their consistent flowering from bottom to top is long. Unpretentious and easy to grow, it can remain in one place for many years.