Growing common beans at home

Beans are a popular legume that is often grown in home gardens. It is one of the most beneficial crops known to man. They grow it for dry beans rich in protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral salts.

Characteristics of beans

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is native to Central and South America. There are over 200 types of beans. This is an annual herbaceous plant of the legume family, the varieties of which are both low and climbing.

Common beans vary in stem height, pod color, fiber content, seed size, and length of growing season.

Pods of different colors

The bean stalk is branched, woody in the lower part, grows up to 25-60 cm in bush varieties and 60-120 cm in varieties with a creeping stem. The tap root system reaches a depth of 100-110 cm and is highly branched in the upper soil layer. Beans do not tolerate transplanting well.

Additional Information! Bean fruits are elongated pods that contain seeds of a characteristic kidney-shaped shape, and depending on the variety, they can be yellow, green, purple or two-colored.

Beans begin to bloom 40-70 days after sowing, depending on the variety. Pollination occurs before flowers open. The plant forms butterfly flowers, collected in brushes of 2-8 pieces, which grow from the axils of the leaves 40-60 days after sowing. They are white lilac, or red, depending on the variety.

The bacteria Rhizobium Phaseoli form root nodules on the roots, which help the bean absorb and utilize nitrogen. For food purposes, mainly seeds are used, which contain a lot of protein.

Growing beans

The culture grows best in a sunny place, protected from the wind. Beans do not grow in the shade. It develops best on fertile and moderately fertile soil, not acidic, with a reaction from neutral to alkaline (pH 6.5 -7.5). To improve the condition of the soil, alkalizing agents, for example, ash, chalk, dolomite, are applied before sowing the seeds.

It is a thermophilic plant, sensitive to cold. Bean seeds should be sown in the ground in the second half of May, as the plant is damaged even by slight frosts (seeds germinate best at 15-22 C). The higher the temperature, the shorter the days required for germination.


Like legumes, they have the ability to use atmospheric nitrogen and therefore do not require manure, especially when changing from other fertilized crops. On poor soils, it is recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizers in the first phases of the growing season, during flowering and during the period of pod setting. Use phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

Preparing seeds for sowing

Beans have tough skins. Such seeds require careful preparation, otherwise, after falling into the soil, they may not germinate and rot. To avoid this, bean seeds are germinated. Before sowing, moisten on a damp cloth so that they germinate faster.

Bean seeds

The seeds are wrapped in a damp cloth and transferred to a warm place with a temperature of +22…+26°C. As soon as a small sprout appears on them, about 0.5 cm long, they become suitable for planting. It is also recommended to soak them in warm water for a day. This procedure will increase the germination and productivity of seeds.

How to plant beans, and at what distance?

It is sown in rows at different distances, depending on the quality of the soil and, above all, the variety. Low ones should be sown at a distance of 30-40 cm, and tall (climbing) 40-60 cm, and 50-80 cm between planting rows.

Tall beans

We plant the seeds directly into the soil, to a depth of 4-5 cm, 2-3 pcs. in each planting hole. The work is done by a hoe. At the time of sowing, the soil must be moist, otherwise it must be watered.

bean care

Care consists in weeding and loosening the soil. Watering should be carried out regularly. For curly beans, supports are placed that are inserted next to the roots.

Outdoor care

How often should beans be watered? A good harvest of beans requires abundant watering. It is relatively demanding on water, and needs regular watering. When planting, avoid large amounts of water because the seeds may rot and not germinate. Usually water every two to three days in the spring, and every 1-2 days in the summer to keep the soil around the bean root relatively moist.

Note! During the flowering and fruiting period, a sufficient amount of water is required, and not an excess, since excessive watering can lead to abscission of flowers and the impossibility of fruit set. It should be borne in mind that climbing bean varieties are more demanding on moisture than undersized ones.

How often are fertilizers added to legumes?

Beans do not need top dressing, but this measure will help increase the yield of the crop, as well as its precocity. Apply complex mineral fertilizers based on phosphorus or potassium. Nitrogenous substances for feeding beans are not recommended, as they activate the growth of shoots and leaves, which inhibits the formation of fruits.

When are the beans harvested and how are they stored?

Green beans are harvested 2-3 months after sowing, depending, of course, on the local climate and the precocity of the varieties. It is important to harvest fresh bean pods before they are fully ripe because they harden as they mature.

They collect fresh bean pods

Additional Information! When harvested, the pods must be still tender and must be harvested every 2-3 days in order to continue flowering and hence the creation of new fruits for a long time. On the contrary, when they begin to harden, the vegetation and fruiting cease.

Harvest fruits in the morning and store them in the refrigerator so that they do not lose freshness. If you boil fresh beans for a minute and then place them in cold water and then dry them, they can be stored for several months in the refrigerator.

Varieties of plain beans

Beans have many varieties, different in cultivation and consumption. In general, they are divided into short and tall. Each species and includes many varieties, with pods of different sizes, shapes and colors,

What diseases and insects affect the bean crop?

Diseases affect many types of beans. In conditions of high humidity and poor ventilation, foliage is affected by fungal diseases such as downy mildew, gray rot and rust. To protect against diseases, spray the foliage with a solution of copper and sulfur, leaving extra space between plants for better air circulation, especially in humid places.

Keep leaves dry, avoiding sprays to reduce fungal growth. Alternating planting every two years also helps. Many types of fungi live in the soil. Excessive heat and humidity are the cause of most pest and disease problems.

Anthracnose is a fungus that usually causes problems with beans in very humid conditions. It may have dark lesions or spots. There is no cure, but with proper preventive measures, this can be avoided.

Bean rust is another common problem caused by a fungus. Rust-colored spots appear on affected plants, and leaves may turn yellow and fall off. Plants should be removed and disposed of. Avoid wet conditions and alternate plants.

Bean rust

To combat insects that attack beans, ecological preparations are used for preventive protection. Sprayed with an improvised agent, dissolving 1st. l. grated green soap and 1 tsp. l. alcohol in one liter of water, every 10 days.

The spider mite attacks the beans and dries their foliage, weakening the plants. Sometimes it is enough to rinse with water to rid the plants of this pest.

What is the nutritional value of beans?

Bean seeds have a high nutritional value, as they are rich in proteins, B vitamins (B1, B2), C and E, antioxidants, fiber and minerals magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium.

  • They have an antioxidant effect: they fight excess free radicals in the body.
  • Protect the liver and prevent diabetes (influence the regulation of insulin levels).
  • They have diuretic functions, help cleanse the body of harmful metabolic products.
  • Positive effect on cholesterol levels.
  • Reduces blood pressure.
  • Improves intestinal peristalsis and facilitates metabolism.

They have a very high protein content (up to 22%). It is a good substitute for meat for vegetarians. They are low in calories and keep you feeling full for a long time. However, it is not recommended for people with gastrointestinal diseases.

How to use beans in the kitchen?

Beans are eaten after they are cooked or processed (canned, frozen). Beans are also included in salad or casserole recipes. Bean pate is an exceptionally tasty addition to bread.