Oleander ordinary – an evergreen upright shrub, came to us from the Mediterranean. In their homeland, he grows around streams and grows up to 2 meters in height. The plant has narrow leathery dark green leaves on wooden stems, size of 10-15 cm and a width of about 2.5 cm at the end of the stalk -. Colorful poisonous succulent buds.
From these species displayed a large number of hybrids that are different flowers of different character: simple or full color, odor, or without it, as well as different colors (pink, white, yellow, red, orange, pink, purple). Furthermore flowers, some varieties also differ leaf coloring, which may be dark-green, yellow-green or light green.
Oleanders withstand prolonged drought and wet soil, can survive on poor or salty soils and do not mind the intense heat. It can even be adapted to different soil types (from acid to alkaline: soil pH 5-8).
Care and growing oleander
Cultivation oleander does not require much experience, and it can be the pride of any garden. The main thing to find the plants a sunny place, where it will be protected enough against drafts and water it regularly. At home oleander growing near a stream, and therefore requires a lot of water.
They tolerate strong sun and heat, so they can be placed in open areas with constant sun. However, plants are sensitive to frost, so in colder climates such as ours, they are grown in containers, and in the winter indoors.
Note!Because of oleander is not frost-resistant, ideal to grow it in a pot to easily move it indoors for the winter.
When and how to cut the oleander – one of the main worries! The plant needs a vase life, as there are less number of flowers, and its new shoots grow inside the crown, and not outside. To save a compact form with a thick branches, it requires a regular cut.
Regular cutting throughout the growing period – removal of intersecting branches just above the level surface.
In the season are held 3 times pruning shrubs. Before the winter when the plant is transferred into the room, remove 1/3 to branches, so as not to lose the flowers next year. They bloom at the annual wood, so when trimming is lost potential bloom in the next season. Shoots with buds to reduce the level of the first buds.
In late winter, cut flower if it became formless or infected by pests. The ideal period – March. All shoots are shortened to a length of 10 to 30 cm. Then cut oleander beautifully restored, but did not blossom until next season.
Important!Before you cut the oleander, you need to wear gloves, since he was a little toxic for the human body and can be irritating to the skin.
Growing in pots
Older plants should be repotted at least once every 3 years, as it does not give the new shoots, and its roots grow through the bottom of the pot.
With the growth of these perennials are transplanted into a larger container size. The optimum period – autumn, after flowering. When the spring or summer flowering transplants can be lost for the season.
Choose a pot slightly larger (to 1-2cm), which slows the growth, but retains abundant flowering plants.
For oleanders requires relatively large pots with drainage holes, through which immediately drains excess water. When grown in pots requires more frequent watering (2-3 times a week, especially in hot weather), and the soil – a sufficient amount of nutrients to bloom profusely.
In addition, it is recommended to fertilize the oleander in spring and early summer of balanced fertilizer to support flowering. When transplanting always add quality garden compost or substrate.
With the advent of cold must be placed in the flower relatively cool (10-15 ° C) place for the winter. Lower temperatures and minimal amount of light in the winter flower kept at rest, during which it is easier to survive the winter. During this period, almost did not water the plants (every month).
Additional information!Too frequent watering during the winter can lead to root rot. It is also necessary to avoid the central heating.
Once the threat of spring frost has passed, which may harm the plant can be planted again to air. First, we put them in the shade for two weeks, so that they are acclimatized, and only then can be placed in full sun.
Pests and Diseases oleander
Oleanders are relatively resistant to pests and diseases, but sometimes parasites that can infect the oleander, cause yellowing of leaves.
Oleander and reproduction
The easiest way to propagate cuttings oleanders. Suitable for breeding young apical shoots, as well as the old woody stems. Cuttings must be healthy, strong and without flower buds that are unnecessarily deplete them. Their length shall be 10 to 20 cm.
Grassy or green cuttings – the young shoots with soft stems can be used in large quantities without having to worry about the mother plant. They quickly take root, but not as reliable as lignified.
Young cuttings can be propagated in the spring of oleander, and from the old – in spring and autumn. Slice the stalks with a sharp instrument, trying to make a clean cut. Young cuttings in the lower half of the leaves removed. Used for planting substrate or garden compost.
The lower part of the cuttings (cut at 45 °) is inserted into the substrate (5 cm) and watered. To increase the likelihood of the adoption, cover them with plastic wrap to create a mini-greenhouse.
Young shoots are rooted in two to four weeks, lignified position occupied more time.
Oleander and his views
Oleander ordinary (Nerium oleander) available in hundreds of different kinds of sizes, colors and shapes. Nerium genus includes 3 types:
Nerium oleander – pink or white flowers, Nerium odorum – fragrant bright red flowers, Nerium indicum – yellow or orange.
- Maurin des Maures – pink single flowers with a strong aroma, compact growth, long flowering;
- Petite Salmon – salmon simple flowers, dwarfism;
- Isle of Capri – creamy-yellow flowers are simple, medium height;
- Jannoch – simple red flowers, increased resistance to cold, long flowering;
- Taurus – pink, single flowers, high resistance to low temperatures;
- Rosario – peach, pink, double flowers;
- Mont blanc-white complex flowers with a strong aroma, long flowering;
- Margharita – dark pink single flowers with a delicate aroma
For the cultivation of oleanders in pots are more suitable for slow-growing dwarf varieties, which do not require large pots for long-term growth.