Features of cypress trees
Cypress is an evergreen coniferous tree of the Cypress family. It can be seen in the green spaces of cities. This is a beautiful tree for the garden. A cypress hedge is a decorative element of a garden or park.
There are many different types of cypress trees that can be grown in all types of gardens, large and small.
- Monterey cypress is a popular ornamental tree in many countries because of its impressive foliage.
The Arizona cypress, which grows in America, is characterized by relatively rapid growth. Its shape is conical, and can reach a height of 10-15 m or more.
- Leyland cypress is a very durable and spectacular plant, reaching a height of 20-30 meters. It has characteristic foliage with dense needle-like leaves and forms small fruits, the famous cypress apples.
The most common cypress is the Common or evergreen cypress. The common cypress is a coniferous tree native to the eastern Mediterranean. Its height usually does not exceed 25 meters. Its lifespan is about 500 years.
It is often used to create tall hedges and windbreaks, as its dense foliage is a strong deterrent to wind. They go well with roses of all kinds.
A cypress tree whose leaves are several millimeters long? they are arranged crosswise, and completely cover the thin branches. Usually they fall off in the third year, so gray-green scaly leaves are only on one- and two-year-old shoots.
Common cypress comes in two varieties: male and female. All cypresses have female and male flowers on the same tree, although in different places, and bloom from early to late spring (March-May).
The plant produces relatively nondescript male and female flowers. The yellow-orange male flowers are about two millimeters long, the female flowers are spherical greenish cones with a diameter of two millimeters, which are located on the middle sections of perennial shoots. Pollination is carried out by wind.
By the beginning of summer, pollinated female cypress cones increase to ten millimeters and turn yellow by autumn. As soon as they dry out, the seed scales open, and in which there are from 7 to 18 seeds.
The male erect cypress has a tall narrow trunk and bright green foliage in the form of a narrow pyramid with branches having a vertical direction. Female — with lush branches grows horizontally in width.
The root system differs depending on the type of soil on which the plant grows. It can be deep and rod-shaped, or strongly expand to the surface.
Location and soil
Cypress is a plant that grows on all types of soil and does not impose special requirements on it if it has good drainage. A slightly loamy, moderately dry or fresh and not too rich in humus soil with lime content is ideal. If the soil in the garden is prone to waterlogging, deep drainage is very important.
The place, in full sun from late morning to evening, is perfect for him. It is resistant to drought, and prolonged drought is not a problem, since the trees are used to periods of drought.
Additional information! The plant is not recommended to be planted in hot regions, as it may have problems at very high temperatures.
They plant a cypress tree in their garden necessarily in the spring. He will have enough time before winter to develop a strong root system.
Pay attention! In the first year, conifers develop a root system. During this time, they may not give noticeable growth, but as they grow older, their growth may be noticeable.
Planting a cypress in the open ground
The soil must be loosened so that it is suitable for the sensitive roots of a young tree. As drainage, the bottom of the landing pit is covered with a layer of gravel, at least ten centimeters high. The top layer of soil is mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of two to one.
In most cases, decorative conifers are sold in pots from nurseries, and the planting holes should be 20-50 cm larger in diameter and depth than the size of the pot. A support is fixed on the eastern side of the sapling trunk.
For good growth in the garden, they need regular watering in summer, although cypress trees are resistant to lack of water. In the first year of planting, it will need regular watering once a week for root development.
Nevertheless, you should be careful with watering. Plants should never suffer from waterlogging. In this case, the risk of being affected by dangerous diseases, such as phytophthora, increases. Watering the foliage should be avoided, as this increases the risk of infection.
When to apply fertilizers for cypress?
In general, the coniferous tree adapts well enough even to poor soils. In order to properly care for the cypress, fertilizers are applied to stimulate their growth. The most suitable fertilizer for garden conifers are those that contain more nitrogen than phosphorus and potassium. You can increase the nutrient content in the soil by adding fertilizers or compost to it.
How to prune a cypress?
The cypress does not need annual pruning, however, we can prune it to limit the height of the tree and update its vegetation. The main task is to prune the hedge to the desired height at least once a year, at the end of winter or at the end of summer. If you constantly maintain the fence at the right height, frequent pruning will be easier and faster.
If the cypresses grow freely, pruning is limited to removing individual dry shoots in the spring. It may also be necessary to remove some branches growing inside the plant. You can regularly trim the tips of the shoots in the spring so that the trees form beautiful, dense branches.
Winter cypress protection
Cypresses should be protected from frost damage in the first few years after planting.
The crowns of young cypresses are wrapped, the root area is mulched with a thick layer of leaves, pinning it down with spruce branches. In mild regions, old plants can do without winter protection
Reproduction of cypress
How is common cypress propagated? There are two ways to create new plants: from seeds and by the method of propagation by cuttings.
Propagation of cypress seeds is a laborious method. Seeds usually ripen only a year after fertilization in the period from March to May. They are stratified in wet sand in the refrigerator for a month, and then sown. Then they germinate quickly and reliably.
In a few weeks, the seeds will germinate. In the first year, new plants will reach a height of 5-10 cm, and they can be transplanted into a larger pot. In 2-3 years, the new cypresses will grow enough to be planted permanently.Propagation of cypress by cuttings is the fastest way to get new plants. Propagation by cuttings is possible in August and September. Young, well-ripened shoots are cut into cuttings about ten to twelve centimeters long. The lateral stems are cut off at the base and an oblique cut is made.
The shoots are placed in moist potted soil mixed with sand, and maintain high humidity by covering with foil. The temperature for their germination should be 22 degrees, and it takes at least eight weeks before the first small roots appear.
Transplanting decorative conifers
Usually cypress can be bought in pots in nurseries, and transplanted to their final place after proper soil preparation. They are planted together with the soil that they have in the pot. It is important that the earthen lump does not burst. This process requires special care, since it is impossible to injure the roots of the plant.
The planting distance can vary greatly depending on the coniferous species, climatic conditions and the soil of the area. If we want to plant two coniferous trees, it is recommended to plant them at a distance of at least 2-3 meters from each other so that they can grow well.
Very dense planting can slow down the growth of plants, as they compete with each other, and that in turn leads to insufficient ventilation of branches. If you use them for hedges, then a distance of 1-1.5 m is observed between the plants.
Diseases and pests
Cypresses are primarily affected by fungal diseases, in conditions of high humidity and poor ventilation. Phytophthora can affect the root system, and is the main cause of the drying of conifers. Symptoms of shrinkage appear on the inside of the foliage near the trunk, gradually moving outward. To combat phytophthora, the root is sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate.
In case of pest infestation, they are easy to spot on the foliage, as they are white and resemble cotton. If the infection is severe, the foliage of the plant dries up. Plants are especially vulnerable on days with high temperature and high humidity. Poor ventilation of the leaves further aggravates the situation.
The best way to fight the disease is prevention. To do this, avoid dense planting, excessive moisture at the roots of plants, moistening of foliage. They often check if there are any problems. If nothing helps, you should immediately remove infected plants from the garden.
Common cypress is used as an ornamental plant, but has other uses. Leaves and cones are used as astringents, expectorants, diuretics, vasoconstrictors, diaphoretic and antipyretics. The wood of its trunk is used in construction and carpentry.