Cauliflower is part of the cabbage family. Annual plant has a deep root system and long leaves. Short stem ends with a compact inflorescence in the form of a white head, yellow, purple. Elongated oval leaves grow from a strong stem that protrudes above the ground. This edible inflorescence is formed in the first year of cultivation.
Features of growing seedlings of cauliflower, rich in vitamins and nutrients vegetables, like cabbage.
Note!Cauliflower more demanding than its close relatives. Grow a good crop of cauliflowers not just far away.
Cabbage needs attention, from sowing to harvest: good soil, good fertilizer, enough water, the absence of disease and favorable weather. However, have a little patience and talent, you can grow a cruciferous vegetable. The better care of the plants, the more successful will be the harvest of cauliflower.
Planting seeds of cauliflower
To grow plants cauliflower yourself, you should start to do it in February. If conditions permit, direct sowing can be carried out in mid-April.
To grow this crop seedlings or can nonseedlings way:
- to plant in containers and then transplanted into place;
- direct sowing in place.
The second method is suitable only for the residents of southern latitudes.
Summary!To grow healthy seedlings before sowing them heated for 20 minutes in hot water at a temperature of 48-50 ° C, then rapidly cooled in cold water and soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for 8:00.
Prepared for sowing the seeds sown in pots or in nutrient sowing boxes. The duration of germination of seeds of cauliflower is strongly temperature dependent.
Note!At low temperatures, sown the seeds germinate longer if the temperature is higher, they quickly catch up with the first crop.
When air temperature of 20 ° C shoots appear after 4-5 days after sowing. They dive at the age of 8-10 days. For planting in pots sown no more than two seeds per pot and always remove the weakest plant thereafter. Place the seeds in a small hole, and then cover with soil. The seeds should be covered with up to 5 mm of soil. After sowing container is placed in a warm and bright place. Seedlings in pots should be watered well. Plants should be hardened before planting in the ground, so they have to gradually get used to the environmental conditions.
When transplanted young plants? Seedlings should be transplanted when it appears from 4 to 5 true leaves larger than 1 cm. At this leaves clearly visible stem and veins. These leaves will have seedlings after 2 weeks.
After the transplant, require 5-6 weeks to form the inflorescence cabbage. Since the establishment of the inflorescence the plant should not produce new leaves. It is necessary to remove leaves that begin to develop. Thus, the plant will spend their energy on creating cabbage.
The soil for growing cauliflower
The soil should not be too wet or too dry. If cabbage growing in drought, it can thereby reduce the yield to zero. When planting a plant soil should be sufficiently moist to a depth of 25 cm.
Planting in open ground
The greater the distance between the plants, the more room for growth and development. Ideally you should keep a distance of 75 x 75 cm, but if there are restrictions on the size of the site no less than 50 cm, otherwise the cabbage will be small and the risk of disease is higher.
Do not grow cauliflower in one place for 2 years in a row. As a rule, it is advisable to wait 4 years before you plant a cabbage in the same place, especially in the case of hernia or attack fleas. However, if the soil is fertile and well-lime, it is possible to land in 3 years or even 2 years.
Cauliflower has a very high demand for water. Too little water leads to poor growth of leaves, small head and promotes shooting shoots. After planting, the young plants should first reduce watering to two or three weeks to encourage root growth. After that, it is important to regular water. A layer of mulch will provide a uniform soil moisture in summer. Cauliflower has a very high need for nutrients.
What kind of cauliflower choose?
The choice of varieties is enormous, but it is important to select the correct grade.
Cauliflower differ in shape and color of the head, growing time, and regardless of whether they are self-protective. In addition to the yellow and green varieties, there is also a purple variety.
It is important to regularly watered it. The soil should always be moist, but in any case to avoid waterlogging! During the greatest growth (June – July) it is necessary to make fertilizer with nitrogen every two weeks. The requirements for phosphorus below also contribute little potassium in the form of wood ashes.
Stop fertilizing for 3 weeks prior to harvest cauliflower, so that it can develop the best taste. Regularly loosen the soil between the rows and remove weeds.
Cauliflower light-requiring, especially in the initial period of growth in the open field. On the shaded areas the stem is pulled, the head formed by loose, rough, exposed to frequent diseases.
At the beginning of growth, especially small cauliflower plants are very susceptible to diseases and pests.
Most fungal diseases can be prevented, some, unfortunately, can not. Therefore, attention should be exercised in order to grow healthy plants.
Important!Common diseases such as herniated cabbage can be prevented by a long period of cultivation (at least 2-3 years) in one place.
Cabbage hernia – a deadly fungal disease.
It is important to remember this, because this disease is transmitted by all plants of this family. Hernia destroys entire cultures and occurs when the same spot is planted too many cruciferous plants. Therefore, it is important to observe rotation. Disease is present in the soil even for many years after all cole crops, can not be cured.
leaves wither in sunny weather, and ultimately plant completely killed. The roots eventually become black and rotting.
It was found that this disease is almost not expressed in high pH soils. For the prevention of more acidic soils desirable to add a little lime during landing. The best solution – to plant resistant varieties of hernia.
Cauliflower is also exposed to many pests.
Fleas are small beetles, which feed on the leaves and pierce the many small holes in them. Particularly active in dry weather. Destroy them is impossible. Choose a healthy and strong plants that can continue to grow, in spite of the attacks of pests.
Caterpillars of butterflies, most belong to a small white butterfly which lays its eggs on cabbage leaves. Will secure the protective screens with fine mesh.
Cabbage fly lays eggs at the base of plants. Some gardeners recommend the use of collars at the bottom of the cabbage.
Although cauliflower – photophilous plant growing head should be protected from direct sunlight. Shortly before harvest white heads should be protected from excessive sunlight. For this leaves surrounding graft toothpick in the middle of the inflorescence cabbage. If you do not, they may turn yellow or brown and even acquire a violet color, but remain at the same time completely edible.