Orchid Dendrobium: home care

Flower growers have long learned to grow both ordinary and rare specimens of orchids in their apartments. Of the huge number of species at home, only a few feel good. Dendrobium among them is the largest genus – one of the most abundantly flowering ornamental orchids.

Description Dendrobium Orchid

Representatives of the Dendrobia orchid family grow naturally in Japan, China, Australia, Oceania, New Zealand and New Guinea, and the Philippines. There are more than 1200 species that differ not only in color, flower shape, leaves, but also in the flowering period.

In its wild habitat, the Dendrobium orchid is an epiphytic species that grows on trees. Lithophytes live on rocks and stones.

This species has about twelve hundred varieties, which sometimes differ greatly not only in the shape and color of flowers or leaves, but also in terms of flowering, the location of shoots on the stem, and many others.

Houseplant Dendrobium – one of the most beautiful species, with large (up to 9 cm in diameter) fragrant flowers grow from 40 to 90 cm. Lush flowering occurs during the growing season between spring and autumn. Inflorescences can be straight or curved.

Curved inflorescences

Orchid Denrdobia refers to sympodial orchids that form the so-called pseudobulbs, in which water and nutrients accumulate.


Many individual flowers open on the sides and at the ends of the pseudobulbs. They sit on short stems in the leaf axils and can develop 20 to 50 individual flowers that are often pleasantly scented. If not too hot, they can bloom for 3 to 6 weeks.

Leathery leaves of oval or lanceolate shape from 5 to 10 cm are alternately placed on the stem. At the end of the growing season, they fall off.

Orchid Dendrobium: care

Dendrobium flower, home care for which, despite the existing nuances, is possible even for a novice florist. How to care for Dendrobium at home? Caring for all subspecies requires compliance with two strict conditions: the absence of drafts and direct sunlight.


Dendrobium belongs to light-loving plants and requires a lot of light. All of their species prefer bright, diffused light.

Note! Dendrobia needs a bright spot, but should not be exposed to direct sunlight. In summer, they can be put on the street, or placed on the terrace or balcony.

By the color of the leaves, it is easy to determine the correct position of the flower in relation to the sun:

  • bright green: too much sun gets in, and you need to create a light shade;
  • dark green – not enough light;
  • if the leaves turn yellow, this indicates a strong lack of sun.

In hot summertime, plants should be shaded, avoiding places where direct sunlight can fall on them, leading to burns.

The orchid is shaded

This type of orchid needs maximum lighting only from the end of August and throughout the autumn, when new shoots begin to ripen in it. During the winter months, it is desirable to provide the plant with additional lighting for up to four to six hours during the day.

Humidity in the room should be between forty and sixty percent. Therefore, in the warm season, they must be sprayed daily, without preventing, however, the ingress of water into the leaf axils. In winter, humidity can be increased by placing the pot on a pallet of expanded clay so that the bottom does not get wet.

Temperature regime

Different types of Dendrobiums vary greatly in their needs, and in particular, this concerns the temperature conditions for their normal growth.

In the process of growth, almost all of them prefer fairly high temperatures. During the day, this figure can vary from 20 ° C to 25 ° C, and at night – from 18 ° C to 20 ° C. After the end of the growing season, this plant must be provided with relatively cool conditions. The night temperature in the room should not exceed 15 °C.

Some cultivars, such as Dendrobium nobile, which require slightly different care than others, require a cooler environment to bloom profusely.

Dendrobium nobile

How to water Dendrobium?
From spring until the full development of the pseudobulb, it should be watered so that the substrate can always dry out completely between waterings. If there is too much water, the above-ground roots can easily rot, the bulbs will die, and the leaves will fall off.
In hot and dry weather, they are often watered. To reduce the entry of moisture into the substrate, you can add a small piece of moss or pieces of coconut bark. When the pseudobulbs are ripe, water less often. During the dormant period, they need moderate watering. The orchid quickly absorbs water only when there is sufficient light, so when the light decreases, watering also decreases.

Important! Do not allow water to get on flowers, bulbs, stems, leaves, as there is a high probability of tissue rotting! If liquid gets inside, it should be easily wiped with a napkin.

Water for irrigation is used soft, best boiled, with a temperature several degrees higher than the air temperature.
top dressing
The nutritional requirements of an orchid are quite low. During the growing season, from April to September, orchid fertilizers containing equal amounts of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are added to the water. Liquid fertilizers are used at a low concentration, observing intervals of two to three weeks. Starting in the fall, reduce the amount of fertilizer. In winter, fertilizers are in most cases very gentle, or not at all.
What kind of soil is needed for Dendrobium?
The epiphyte prefers a loose bark substrate, which it clings to with its aerial roots. Orchid substrate can also be used. Small plants can be kept on a piece of pine bark or pieces of charcoal, or in a mixture of the two.

Why doesn’t Dendrobium bloom?

Most likely, the flower was left in a too warm room to winter. Each type of Dendrobium has its own bud opening time. This orchid has a pronounced inactive period when growth stops and new buds appear. Changes in day and night temperatures have a good effect on this process. The difference between them should be seven degrees. In order to produce flowers, the plant needs a temperature stimulus – wintering in a cool place, and placing them in a warm place in spring. In summer, the plant needs a temperature of 20°C and above, and in winter from 10 to 17°C.
To achieve flowering, some flower growers go to the following tricks: they do not water the orchid until buds appear on it. At the same time, the temperature is lowered to 12 ° C. This is not difficult, since Dendrobium, home care, for which it is not very difficult, blooms in winter. Watering is restored only after the opening of the flowers that have appeared.

Important! In order for the orchid to lay flower buds, a cool dormant phase is necessary. At the same time, it is occasionally watered so that the root ball does not dry out. Without this winter break, the orchid will not bloom.

Care after flowering

Typically, the flowering period lasts approximately eight to twelve weeks. After flowering, the aerial part of the orchids begins to grow rapidly, and babies form. Active growth continues until the end of summer, and at this time the old pseudobulbs are not removed – they provide additional nutrition for new ones.
This period in the life of the plant is very important. When the orchid fades, watering gradually stops. Many orchids go into a dormant state: they are preparing to bloom again. Dendrobium nobile, after flowering, remove the peduncle, and transfer the pot to a cooler place.

Orchid Dendrobium: transplant

Orchid transplant

They do not tolerate transplanting, so it should be done only if necessary: when aerial roots grow out of a hole in the bottom, go beyond the edge of the pot, or the substrate is too old. A suitable time for transplantation is spring, when new pseudobulbs begin to develop in the orchid, but transplantation is also possible before autumn. In winter, the plant should be left alone.
Pots are usually chosen opaque. Clay pots are most suitable, and the new container should be 3-4 cm larger than the previous one. A quarter of the container is filled with drainage.
Pruning Dendrobium is not required. It is also not necessary to cut off the old leaves, they will fall off on their own, or they can be carefully plucked. You can use scissors to remove the old dried shoot.
At the end of the flowering period, pseudobulbs remain without flowers, and then without leaves. When the onion is dry, cut it off with a clean, sharp knife. The cut is sprinkled with charcoal for disinfection.
Aerial roots are pruned only in exceptional cases. Aerial roots are the root part that grows on the surface of the soil. They allow the plant to receive all the nutrients necessary for growth and flowering, most of which it takes from the environment.

Aerial roots

They are only cut when they are dead. Since they are different from the green parts of the plant, it is not always clear whether the roots are alive or not.

How to propagate dendrobium

Taking into account the characteristics of this flower, it is propagated by dividing the bush and cuttings. In the first and second cases, the procedure is carried out only after flowering. The best material for growing are side shoots – “kids”. “Kids” is a small process with roots. They should grow on the mother plant for as long as possible so that they can develop roots about 5 cm long. It is best to let them mature all year. A piece of rhizome must have at least 4 pseudobulbs.
Propagation of Dendrobium by cuttings. Dendrobia nobile and other species reproduce perfectly by cuttings: you can cut off the apical part or completely divide the entire shoot into pieces 10-12 cm long.
The resulting cuttings are stored in the root solution for a day, and then simply rooted in water in a sterile container. Pour water only on the bottom of the container.
In a few months, the plants will have a developed root system, and they can be planted in separate bushes.

Diseases and pests of Dendrobia

If the orchid looks weak and unhealthy, the reason is most likely due to improper care.

Orchid leaves turn yellow

Often yellow leaves are caused by pests and diseases. Dendrobia are susceptible to parasites that are attracted to dry conditions. These include mainly spider mites and mealybugs.
The spider mite covers the infected plant with a thin cobweb. First, you can get rid of the parasite with water: rinse the plant with a strong stream. This will wash away most of the mites.
Mealybugs secrete a waxy substance on an infected plant, greatly weakening them. Control measures must be taken as soon as possible. First of all, you should remove the infected parts of the plant, and isolate the orchid from other indoor plants. You can then spray with a mixture of water, alcohol and soap. Per liter of water 15 ml of alcohol and soap. Regularly repeat spraying for 2-3 days.
To combat parasites, insecticides are used, in addition, it is necessary to increase the humidity around the flower, wash the leaves with soapy water every two weeks.
Viral diseases appear in the form of spots. The disease develops slowly, gradually capturing new leaves, which eventually die off. Viral diseases cannot be cured, no matter how much you fight for the plant, it will hurt even if you remove all diseased leaves, provide good care for orchids. It is better to get rid of such orchids so as not to infect others, and use a disinfectant to clean the room.
Fungal infections begin on leaves and pseudobulbs.

Fungal infections on leaves


Small yellow spots, gradually merge, darken. The leaves dry up or rot. To cure an orchid from most fungal infections, it is necessary to re-treat the plant with a systemic fungicide.

Bacterial rot should be treated with a copper-derived fungicide, such as copper sulfate. Damaged parts must be cut and removed, and the remaining parts of the soil should be treated with fungicide 2-3 times at 10-day intervals.

Prevention is the best way to protect. Generally, good care makes the plant less susceptible to pests.