Myrtle common: particular care at home
Myrtle (Myrtus communis) belongs to the family mirtovatyh (Myrtaceae). Under natural conditions, flower grows in the Mediterranean, in a subtropical climate. Today, distributed in North Africa and the Middle East as well as in Europe. In Crimean grows small amount of myrtle trees. Under natural conditions, the common myrtle grows to 5 meters in height and is a perennial. In home gardens, in the south of Europe, it is used to create a fragrant natural hedges and fences.
There are different grades and varieties of this plant. There are more than a hundred species, which differ from each other:
- colored flowers;
- the shape of leaves;
- fruit color;
- bush height.
Despite the large number of varieties, common myrtle is most popular as a houseplant, because of the ease of care.
It is famous for its highly fragrant flowers, leaves and shoots. Its small leaves, shiny and fragrant herbal have a little camphor, eucalyptus flavor. At home, the plant can grow to a height of 0.6 – 1 m.
In late April-early May, the common myrtle begin to bloom many small fluffy flowers with a sweet fragrance. Flowers Five-planar shape. Inflorescences may be white, beige or slightly reddish. They bloom all summer.
Fruits are formed as a dark blue or black berries, with a slightly elongated shape, resembling a juniper berries. They are edible, have a sweet and spicy taste. Berry contains some seeds.
How to care for the flower of myrtle
Wrong for flower care can cause lethargy and yellowing of leaves. To bloom was successful, you should follow the recommendations for care. At home, myrtle grow as a compact tree or ornamental shrubs is relatively simple, you just need to follow certain rules of caring for them – to create a humid and warm climate.
Myrtle – heat-loving plant, so it is cultivated in pots. Sensitive to large changes in temperature and frost. However, this is not typical houseplant – prefers sunlight and needs fresh air. He likes to have a free space around him. In summer, it feels good in the open balcony, terrace or garden.
The optimum temperature for the cultivation is 18-20 degrees. Sun-loving plant requires good lighting at home. The best place for myrtle – a place where the plant will be under the bright sun but nepalyaschim. If the pot is exposed to the south window, it is advisable to shade the bush at noon. However, on the north side of the plant does not feel comfortable. When insufficient light leaves become small and sparse, thin branches, elongated light green hue.
The soil mixture
Common myrtle pretty picky about the fertile, well-drained acidic soil. If you do not provide a substrate drainage (expanded clay, bark, gravel), the roots may rot. The plant turn yellow and, as a consequence, is withered. Therefore, it is moderately watered soft water and fertilize in the summer liquid fertilizers without calcium.
Myrtle likes high humidity, and therefore require frequent spraying. In winter, the plant does not need to spray, but in the warm season, it should be irrigated regularly. To improve the humidity pot was placed in a container filled with wet gravel. It can also be placed next to him with a bowl of water.
Watering during the warmer months should be regular, but not plentiful.
Inadequate or infrequent watering can lead to leaf fall. Myrtle negatively reacts to a short drying soil. After drying drops leaves and may die. Even a short drying soil is dangerous for plants. When the soil dries, the flower pot is immersed in water. However, the stagnation of water in a flower pot, too, should not be.
With the onset of cold weather watering reduced. In winter, if the premises are working heating systems, watering is carried out in the summer. This will help myrtle cope with the dry air in the room. Signs of lack of moisture are fading and falling leaves. Unless urgent action is taken the leaves begin to fall off and the plant refused to bloom in the summer.
To use special power myrtle complex preparations for flowering houseplants.
Myrtle responds well to fertilization, they are used 2-4 times per month during the warm season. In winter you need to feed the myrtle at least once a month. In the spring and summer of used fertilizer for flowering plants, and in the cold time of the year – for the decorative foliage.
Trim the stems
The plant is easy to tolerate pruning, so it is advisable to give the desired shape of the crown. It is better to do this spring, when active growth has not started yet. Pruning is not always useful in the formation of buds.
You can give your tree a desired shape by cutting branches from different sides.
To myrtle looked like a low shrub cut him up like a miniature tree – trimmed the side branches.
How to transplant the myrtle tree?
In the spring of the myrtle is cut and transplanted. The procedure should be carried out not more than once every two years.
NoteEarly spring – not only the best time for pruning, but also for transplanting indoor myrtle tree
The root system of this crop does not grow fast, but every 3-4 years adult plant is transplanted into a larger container. The new container is transplanted after the roots fill the entire space of the pot. It is useful to transplant young seedlings every year.
Favorable time for planting myrtle trees in winter – in February, in the summer – July.
Important!When transplanting the root neck of the plant should not be buried in the ground.
For transplantation and cultivation of myrtle, a special soil mixture consisting of sand, peat, humus and coarse soil. You can also use a mixture of peat, humus and sand, suitable for versatile mix of decorative plants
Additional information!No matter what soil mix has been selected for the cultivation of myrtle, it should be remembered that the lands reaction should be slightly acidic
Plant health, appearance, and the growth rate depends on the choice of the flower pot. If a large pot, the soil dries out over time, after watering, thereby appears on the surface of the calcium salt and magnesium. The soil is alkaline, which can lead to rotting of the root system. In a very small pot there is a possibility of excessive drying out the roots.
Many prefer their own potted plants reproduce. For reproduction myrtle use one of two methods:
Cuttings – this is a popular and easy way to get a new plant.
The best time for planting cuttings – winter and summer. Take stem length of 6 to 8 cm, but not from blooming branches. The leaves are cut off or shortened. Is treated in cut growth stimulator, then put it into the ground and cover glass or transparent film. Rooting takes 2-3 weeks. Then the cuttings are rooted in a shallow container filled with sand and moss and covered with a special covering. Regularly watered.
Seeds in ripe fruits can be successfully used for reproduction. Such breeding plants lasts much longer. Myrtle seed germination takes about a year. Furthermore, the characteristics of the class may be lost when using this method, and the myrtle bloom much later.
Sowing seeds is carried out in early spring. They were planted in a sandy peat base, top cover with soil.
The rest period
Winter for this flower – a period of rest. With the onset of autumn and winter slow down the growth of the plant, resting on strong growth and laying the buds for the future flowering. During this period, the optimum temperature myrtle content is 6-10 ° C.
Winter is better to move the tree in a cool room where the temperature is 6-8 degrees. The content of the plants in these conditions promotes abundant flowering in summer. The myrtle may remain at ambient temperature in winter, but then it must be abundantly watered, and it constantly sprayed.
During the winter months the myrtle also need a lot of sunlight. Otherwise, it can throw off the leaves, which can turn yellow if the room is dry and warm air. If it is to continue to water in spring, it turns green again, but is unlikely to bloom.
Watering should be moderate. Just one watering a week, but the soil should not be too dry. Spray the plant only if it is in a warm room. Feeding is carried out every 4-5 weeks.
Diseases and pests
Myrtle is not particularly susceptible to fungal diseases and pests. From time to time should take care of the plants and to be attentive to symptoms of anxiety. Proper watering plant protection from serious problems. If the soil is poorly drained, it can cause root rot,
Threatening myrtles pests are:
- Jose scale;
Plant sometimes infected by fungus, which is shown dark purple spots on the outer side of the leaves and gray bloom on the other surface of the sheet.
Important!The infected parts of the plant must be removed immediately.
At the bottom of the leaves you can see the spider mite. The leaves are wrapped in thin white spider web. To destroy the used spraying and washing leaves, particularly on the underside, with water or a weak solution of tobacco.
On the underside of the leaf aphid settles and feeds juice plants, because of which the leaves are twisted and dry. ready insecticides may be used.
myrtle as a medicinal plant: myrtle oil properties and application
Myrtle – a powerful natural antibiotic. It is a valuable vegetable raw materials. Infusion of myrtle possesses spasmolytic, analgesic and expectorant effects. Decoction of leaves used for topical application: the healing of wounds and ulcers, and for internal use.
Myrtle known disinfectant and is used for treatment of respiratory diseases: bronchitis, chronic cough, various respiratory diseases. Chewing fresh leaves of a myrtle has an antiseptic effect, eliminates halitosis.
It strengthens the immune system, the intestinal function and regulates venous circulation. It is also effective in diseases of the urinary tract and prostate.
People with diabetes are brewed tea with myrtle lowers blood sugar.
Myrtle comprises acetylsalicylic acid, which has analgesic, diaphoretic and antiinflammatory action. It is indicated for the prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as for the prevention of post-infarction complications.
Another valuable component myrtle is myricetin – flavonoid and powerful antioxidant which has a prophylactic effect in cardiovascular diseases.
Essential oil of myrtle from citrus fragrance used in the manufacture of perfumes, cosmetics, for flavoring toothpastes.
Mineral oils function:
- nourishes and moisturizes the skin, giving it a healthy appearance;
- relieves inflammation;
- is a good remedy for pimples and blackheads;
- strengthens hair follicles, improve hair texture.
Regular use of essential oil of myrtle improves skin and hair structure, effective for respiratory diseases.
Myrtle in the kitchen
Some species are used in cooking. myrtle fruit is used to flavor desserts and sweet dishes. Sliced ??or whole leaves are used as a spice seasoning to the meat. They have a bitter taste.
It should be noted that the myrtle leaves contain toxic ingredients that are suitable for high sensitivity can cause headaches and nausea.
Common myrtle – a beautiful and fragrant plant that creates a special atmosphere in the room. Houseplant looks great as a stand alone flower Caring for Mirta is not as difficult as it seems at first glance, plant and gratefully respond to care for a beautiful flowering.
& Amp; nbsp;