Sage: description of the plant
Sage (lat Salvia officinalis.) – a plant family Lamiaceae native to the Mediterranean countries. It is grown in many countries around the world. It is a well known spice and herb. It occurs throughout the world: in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, grows in the wild.
There are more than 900 species, including annuals, perennials and shrubs. Variety with decorative leaves are especially appreciated. As an ornamental plant, sage great for herb combinations (especially when combined with lavender) for perennial flower beds.
Salvia is a dense, low bushes (50-70 cm tall) with rigid aromatic shoots and large gray-green leaves. Small flowers are collected in the ears. They can be purple, pink, blue or white. Sage blooms in June and July. The plant has a characteristic odor due to the essential oil in the leaves and young shoots. The herb is often used in cooking.
The varieties of sage. Forms
Sage is one of the most interesting plants that can be grown in the garden. We have all kinds of individual requirements, some of them carry the penumbra (glossy sage), others to cope with a temporary drought (Medical Sage), while some are susceptible to overdrying (wet sage).
Different kinds of Salvia differ in their resistance to frost. Some do not tolerate low temperatures (annual sage) others – Moderately resistant (medical sage), while others exhibit a complete frost (moss sage).
Of the many types of garden are cultivated only a few. The most popular forms of sage:
- a brilliant sage;
- Sage Sage;
- Salvia nemorosa;
- Salvia powdery;
- Tricolor Sage.
A brilliant sage(Salvia splendens) – annual ornamental plant with thick stems and large, heart-shaped, serrated on the edges of dark green leaves. Its main decoration – colorful large flowers, gathered at the tips of shoots in dense paniculate inflorescences. It begins to bloom in June / July and until frost. Excellent for decoration flower beds and flower beds, as looks good in a group, it can be grown in pots on balconies and terraces.
Salvia powdery(Salvia farinacea) has rigid straight shoots up to 80-100 cm tall, covered with shiny, serrated leaves. Blue-purple flowers, gathered in inflorescences appear in spring (May) and autumn bloom until frost. Well suited for borders and for planting along the alleys.
Salvia nemorosa(Salvia nemorosa) – a popular variety. This branching perennial with small heart-shaped leaves. Blue-purple flowers, gathered in dense long ears are decorated with plants. Usually bloom twice a season: spring and late summer. To achieve re-flowering, the plant is cut all the dry flowers. This type of frost-resistant enough and does not require winter protection is easily propagated through seeds (gives abundant self-seeding) and by cuttings rooting shoots.
Sage Sagegrows best in a sunny and sheltered from drafts location. In our climate can be grown in the garden, because the frost is not high, it is necessary to shelter for the winter. Winter aboveground part dies, and in the spring, after removing the cover, it should be cut about 10 cm above the ground to allow the emergence of numerous young shoots
Tricolor Sage,with reddish-green leaves with a wide white border, it is the most beautiful of all kinds.
Requirements to care
Sage can be grown outdoors. Since this heat-loving plant, it should be planted in a place where there is enough sunlight. It is also necessary that the sage was not exposed to strong winds.
With regard to the soil in which to grow Salvia, it may be several. The plant prefers penetrating breeding ground, which should have good supplies of calcium and nitrogen to maintain growth. Suitable alumina-sand soil, which is well provided with nutrients. Dry and partly rocky soil with sufficient nutrients as he likes.
Note!Sage is grown mainly in the open air or in a greenhouse, but also suitable for growing in a pot.
Young plants are watered and it is important to get rid of weeds, so that they have enough space and light to grow. The plant grows and reproduces well, but in the spring (April-May), it should be cut – or the appearance will be unappealing.
Sage is usually propagated by cuttings of shoots, rooted in the spring (May-June). In early spring (March), you can sow the seeds in boxes and planted seedlings to a permanent place in the garden in mid-May.
Medicinal properties and applications
Herb sage harvested when the plant reaches full growth of leaves, but before flowering. In the first year of planting this period usually occurs in August. In subsequent years, the first crop harvested in May and the next in August.
Harvest is best to collect the day on dry, sunny days. After gathering plant is dried in the shade in air. Properly dried sage keeps a greenish color, easy to crumble. Store the dried herb in a dry, closed containers intact leaves and milled before use.
Medicinal herb widely used in folk medicine. This undemanding culture has long been recognized as one of the most valuable medicinal plants, so it contains a lot of important organic compounds that have potent anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect. Sage is known for its diverse use in the kitchen and in cosmetics.
Salvia contains a lot of ingredients that have a positive effect on human health, but the most valuable is the essential oil. Also, leaves can be found in tannins, organic acids, and vitamins (group A, C, B) and minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc, iron).
Salvia is widely used due to its beneficial effects on the human body:
- with the inflammation of the urinary tract;
- treats inflammation of the oral cavity;
- reduces excessive sweating;
- improves the immune system;
- increases blood flow to the body;
- treats trauma and burns;
- helps maintain mental balance, protects against stress and fatigue;
- increases the potency and has a positive effect on women’s issues;
- supports the skin and hair health.
Infusions and extracts of sage leaves are used externally and internally. Tea with sage aids in digestion (bloating, diarrhea), inflammation of the oral cavity and angina. 1-2 teaspoons dry or 3-4 fresh sage leaves dipped in boiling water and allowed to brew for at least 10 minutes.
You can use sage with a cold: breathe for a couple, or add it to a bath. Sage helps with excessive sweating and can rid the skin of problems such as acne, body odor and skin diseases. Aromatic herbs are often housed in enclosures that smelled of clothes, as well as in various places in the house to remove the smell of pets.
Note!Use caution when taking salvia inside, as the plant contains powerful oil and toxic thujone.
In the kitchen
Due to its unique taste and flavor, sage is a popular spice. It has a sharp, spicy aromatom.Na kitchen sage added to various dishes: soups, sauces, different kinds of meat. With sage tea can be cooked.
Due to its composition, the sage has an amazing impact on our body.