It is an old cultivated plants. They were grown in ancient China and Japan. They also grow in the wild, proved up to 300 species. Clematis belong to the family of buttercups. Their Latin name is derived from the Greek word for Clem, meaning mustache.
Clematis are especially popular because of the large number of colors, but many of them decorative even after flowering. It is evergreen or deciduous, partially or completely frost-resistant perennials.
Individual species and varieties may differ in height, which they attain adulthood, shape, color and size of flowers, as well as the necessary care.
The plant has large flowers of different colors, some are even bi-colored. The most common white, purple, blue, pink, burgundy and yellow. From the axils of the leaves grow inflorescence. Color may vary depending on the climatic conditions, the warmer the climate, the more saturated the color of the flowers. In most species the flowers are drooping, bell-shaped about 5-8 cm in diameter. Their range is constantly increasing.
In our gardens more often grown clematis (Clematis viticella) different varieties. Perennial hardy plant that can reach a height of 3-4 meters. Soft stems are attached to the support. Support can serve as fences, walls, arbors, pergolas, nets and wooden supports.
How to grow clematis
Care for this plant is simple, but requires constant care.
Important!Ideal for these plants a sunny place, or partial shade, always on the leeward side. In the shade does not bloom and little flowers.
They need permeable soil, rich in nutrients, but quite cool. The surface where the roots are obscure or shredded bark mulch, so they do not overheat during the day in the sun, the surface does not dry and remain naturally moist.
You can put in front of them slightly lower perennials – they provide pritenenie roots.
Plants are planted in the fall and spring. The right time for planting clematis in late August and September. It all depends on the weather. It is important that it was warm, but not hot. On warm days, when the soil is well warmed up yet, the plant survives well and will be ready for the winter without problems.
Note! To seedlings have taken root, they necessarily pritenyayut and regularly watered.
Clematis can grow at the same place more than 20 years, so the planting hole is prepared in advance for deep, of at least 60h60h60 cm. In order to prevent excessive wetting of the soil, is poured on the bottom of the drainage layer of gravel 10 cm thick. Fall asleep with a mixture of compost and garden soil. Before planting seedling, its well-watered, and then take out it from the pot and was placed in the middle of the pit. Root neck sleep five to eight cm. Loose soil.
After planting, watering, and again later need to provide regular watering. This is especially important on hot summer days. The substrate should not be a long time to dry out, otherwise the clematis will begin to fade and may be subject to certain diseases. Poured directly onto the roots, and as little as possible on the leaves.
During the season, you need to be watered regularly. Best of all, so that the soil remains slightly damp, but not wet.
It is useful to regularly fertilize quality fertilizer for flowering woody plants throughout the summer to early fall. As compost.
In winter you need to cover the foliage, especially in areas where there is a risk of freezing.
A prerequisite for an abundant flowering is not only the right place and the right cut. Pruning promotes branching and abundant blossoming of a flower. Care is also part of the removal of dry shoots and weak. From April to May, you can cut too branched clematis. Late pruning will lead to delay flowering. In late autumn shoots shorten twenty centimeters. Withered and weakened shoots are removed again.
During the first year should be reduced by up to 30 cm.
In subsequent years, pruning depends on the type and period of flowering.
There are many types. They bloom at different times of the year, and each type requires a separate trimming.
Melkotsvetkovye colors (e.g., Tangutian flamingo) are cut more drastically. All shoots are shortened by about 20 cm above the ground. This will provide a more lively form of the plant, but especially abundant flowering.
To simplify pruning is divided into different groups. To determine which group belongs clematis need to wait until it blooms.
- Group 1 evergreen species. They bloom in spring on old shoots. For them, only a small cross-section is required. Only remove dry and damaged stems to strengthen healthy shoots. When clematis grow large, it can be cut without restrictions.
- Group 2 Blooming twice a year, in the spring on the old, in late summer on new shoots. Remove the late autumn shoots dead and cut up several strong kidneys.
- Group 3. These include, flowering in early summer clematis. They tolerate a strong cut. In late autumn or early spring, cut off all the shoots from the top to healthy wood, which formed last year, at a height of about 45 cm above the ground.
- Herbal clematis in late autumn or early spring just above the ground srezyut.
Clematis can be propagated in various ways: by seeds, cuttings. The best way – an offshoot. A good time – the autumn, when the soil is constantly moist. Using an older process, the effluent from the ground. With a sharp knife make a thin cut on the underside of the right usik- for “node”. Secure escape in this part of the arch wire in the wet ground. At this point forms a branch roots. About a year later, you can neatly separate the process from the parent plant and plant it elsewhere. Another method – a division of the old plant. The spring part with roots separated with a sharp knife and put separately.
Propagation by cuttings
Choose a semi-ripe, but not woody cuttings.
Cut with scissors a piece. At the bottom of the stalk make the cut on the 4 – 5 cm below the branches and leaves growth space. Top section must be higher than the cleavage.
Remove the leaves from the bottom of the cutting. This reduces the evaporation area, which contributes to more rapid rooting.
Ready-cuttings should be of equal length. They must not be damaged, with no signs of disease or pests. Before putting them into the substrate, they are placed in a glass of water.
Deep pot filled with soil not to the top. On the substrate layer is poured river sand 2 cm thick. The end cuttings treated in the powder rooting stimulator and carefully inserted into the substrate.
Covered with a transparent plastic bag and placed in a warm light place, ideally at the temperature of 22 ° C. To maximize the chances of success, a few immediately planted cuttings.
Pests and diseases
It is important to regularly check for the presence of plant diseases and pests. Delaying can cause plant death.
- Powdery Mildew. On the surface of the leaves appear white spongy coating, clematis stunted, turn yellow, the leaves are falling. All infected leaves must be removed (do not place in the compost), spray the plants with fungicide.
- On the leaves are gray-brown circular track, which will eventually join to form a large area of ??dead tissue. Remove the affected part of a plant. If the plants defeat more extensive use of fungicides.
- Aphids accumulate mainly on young leaves and stems. They cause stunted growth and deformation. On leaves appear sticky plaque due to the release of pests. They reduce the intensity of light falling on the leaves. At low pest prevalence can manually kill.
- If the leaves and buds wither, become a dark brown color, most likely, the danger is caused by soil fungi and affects mainly the large-variety. Fungi are transmitted by wind, water or insects and affect the most frequently weakened plants.
- Symptoms similar to wilting. You can cut as much as possible and in any case cut part does not throw in the compost. If the infection extensive, destroying the plant and never in the same place is not new clematis plant.
With proper care, you can ensure that these beautiful flowering shrub from spring to autumn. To expand the flower show, plant spring and summer blooming varieties, so that they bloom for months rather than weeks. You can also put a number of two different varieties and get a spectacular two-color spectacle.