Herb of the aster family originates from the Mediterranean region, where it occurs in the wild. As garden plant spread throughout Europe. Calendula officinalis Common Name: marigold garden, marigolds.
Annual, rarely biennial herbaceous plant, up to 50 cm, with many branches. On the stems grow lanceolate leaves, eight to ten centimeters long and about four centimeters in width.
Calendula flowers have the shape of a basket, from bright yellow to orange in color, with an average diameter of four centimeters. They are arranged singly at the tips of stems.
From June to September, the flowers bloom only four or five days, but the plant is constantly forming new flower heads, which ensures long lasting blooms. Educated seeds carried by wind or cling to the animals. Fruits are very varied in shape and size of seeds, often arcuate shape.
Requirements for cultivation
Grow Calendula officinalis is very simple. In our country, it is often planted as an ornament gardens. They can also be found on the road or in the fields.
This light-requiring, moderately thermophilic and moisture-loving culture. The shady places it does not grow, because it reduces the number of drugs.
The soil should be nutritious, permeable. Calendula growing on sand and clay, meadow, forest, black soils. The quality of the flowers and leaves is improved by more dry cultivation.
Culture gives good results when conventional fertilizers with the introduction of nitrogen and phosphorus. Since the main raw material are the colors, the ratio in favor of the phosphor is preferable. This increases the part of the plant mass, and increased dye yield, and drugs.
Care during the growing season associated with the fight against weeds. Watering is carried out depending on the soil and drought in the summer. In the dry months the plants is carried out 4-6 moderate watering.
Note!When watering is necessary to wait 2-3 days, and then move on to the next color collection.
Marigold propagated by seeds that are sown in spring or autumn. The first flowers appear in about ten weeks after sowing.
The collection of medicinal plants
In the gardens of the raw material can be harvested until late fall. For therapeutic effect fits the entire plant, but mostly collect flowers, which are also edible. They are rich in flavonoids, which, due to its antioxidant properties have a positive effect in the therapeutic treatment.
Harvest time: July-September. Collect the leafy tops of the plants (25-30 cm) at the time of flowering, because then the plant has the greatest healing power.
Harvesting is carried out in the period of full flowering plants in dry, sunny weather, if possible. Good harvest on a clear sunny day, then he has the greatest healing power.
The collected material is dried and prepared with a thin layer in ventilated rooms, or in an oven at temperatures up to 45 ° C. Drying should take place immediately after harvesting in order to preserve the color of the raw material. Drying in the sun is not recommended.
Important!Store in a dry and dark place. Long-term storage affects the quality of the drug, since the content of nutrients (especially carotenoids) decreases rapidly.
Useful properties of marigold
In folk medicine, raw materials often used calendula in the form of tinctures or ointments for compresses.
- Dried and ground marigold flowers (marigold) antiinflammatory and accelerate the healing process of wounds.
- Calendula tincture and tea helps with gastric ulcer and bowel, as well as problems with the liver and biliary ways.
- Ointments from marigold used to treat sunburn, skin cancer and eczema.
- As a natural dye, marigold flowers are widely used in the manufacture of cosmetics and food products.
- This is a good helper in the treatment of cough or asthma.
- cleans the blood and helps with gynecological problems.
- Provides a depressing effect on some tumors.
- Helps in viral diseases, staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, liver diseases. When cancerous ulcers and tumors.
- It is recommended for heart diseases with arrhythmia and hypertension during menopause.
Using in cosmetology
Due to its amazing effects of calendula are widely used in the manufacture of cosmetics. It contains vitamin C, saponins, flavonoids, resins, and other bitter substances:
- are used in many preparations for skin and aromatherapy;
- soothes and heals inflamed skin, frostbite;
- for its healing and antiseptic effects, it is one of the great means for the treatment of dry skin and chapped lips.
Compress of flowers – a great first aid for burns, bites and rashes. Calendula Ointment is recommended for varicose veins, and the cold extract can be used to rinse the eye with conjunctivitis. The juice from the stem is used to remove warts, corns.
How to use
Used as a decoction, tinctures, ointments and oil extract.
Infusion: 2 tablespoons feedstock 400 ml of boiling water. Poured and allowed to infuse n 2 hour. Strained infusion drink 200 ml before meals 3-4 times a day.
Brothprepared from 2 tablespoons of the drug, 500 ml of water. Boil 3 minutes and allowed to infuse for 1 hr. The broth used externally and gargling with inflammation of the oral cavity.
Tincture: 1: 5 with alcohol or strong brandy. Ingest 30-40 drops 3-4 times daily, with one teaspoon of the infusion, diluted in 500 ml of water, is used to compress and rinses.
Infusion of flowers and olive oil (1:10) is used for hard healing wounds.
Diseases and pests
On the plants you can find disease causing leaf spot and mildew, as well as some pests – wireworms.
Calendula is often killed by powdery mildew. In this case it is necessary to remove the plant from the site.
Marigold grown on an industrial scale because of their therapeutic properties, and the importance for the cosmetic and food industries. They have an incredible number of ways of improvement of people, and definitely worth to put in the garden.