Mulberry: Origin and characteristic
Mulberry (Morus) belongs to the Moaceae family (Moraceae) and consists of a variety of different species that are mainly inhabiting in East Asia and Persia.
White Mulberry (Morus Alba) reached Central Europe around 1700 ago. It was not used because of sweet fruits, but for the cultivation of a liner silkworm (BOMBYX MORI) for the production of silk.
With the exception of mulberry carlikova, they have strong growth and adds to 70 cm annually, and grow up to height from 8 to 10 meters, in rare cases up to 15 meters. Typical for the whole family of silk is white milk juice, which is released when cutting, and can cause skin irritation.
Egg-shaped mulberry leaves are large, the edge of them is usually served. When flowering, light green, inconspicuous flowers appear in May. They are sensitive to cold, and therefore are at risk of late frosts. Some fruits of mulberry in maturation acquire dark purple color, but there are also red, pink and cream-white berries. All of them taste very sweet.
White Mulberry Fruits
The fruits ripen some others from the end of June to August, and in large quantities fall from the trees. Since the beginning of the collection of the first mulberry, a fine grid should be pulled under the trees, since completely ripe fruits simply fall from the tree. In this case, they can be stored only for a short time.
Flowers of tute trees are mostly double and self-polishing. However, there is only purely male or purely female plants that need to be planted together for fruiting. Trees with male flowers are not fruiting, but to know what they can only be in 4-5 years.
Mulberry Mulberry landing and care. Landing a mulberry: place, timing
It is best to plant in the spring so that the seedling can take root on the plot and put the roots on a sunny, warm place, protected from cold winds. Mulberry is a thermo-loving plant, preferring a protected place. It is suitable light, rich in nutrients and lime soils, which, as a rule, have a high level of pH. Since the tute trees are well tolerated drought, they also grow on poorer sandy soils. Distance for single trees ranges from 3 to 4 meters in all directions.
Ideal time for planting tute trees – early spring from mid-March. Thus, young plants are not exposed to dangerous winter frost and can grow well in the summer.
Dig a deep pit for landing, 1.5 times more root coma. In the heavy clay soil on the bottom of the pits, the drainage layer is poured. The seedling is lowered into the pit, the roots neatly straighten, shake the trunk so that there are no emptiness in the ground. After planting the surface in the rolling circle is sealing, watered with two buckets of water, and when it is absorbed, the rolling circle is mounted. The high layer of compost holds moisture, and if necessary, gives it to the roots of the plant. Regularly watered during the first summer.
Landing of a tute tree
If the seedlock is too thin, in front of the landing, they drive into the pit of the support, to which the village is tied after landing.
Mulberry: Growing and care in the middle strip. Description on the reproduction of the tute wood
Watering and Fertilizer
Mulberry, transfers longer periods of drought. The prerequisite for this, of course, is a good root system. In the first few months after landing, watering should be carried out regularly, especially in summer. If the tute tree rummaged well, it is practically no need to water it.
Mulberry has medium nutrient needs, and the nutrients are supplied at the beginning of the growing season. In June, a repeated feeding is carried out, which provides silky with the necessary nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium until the end of the year.
Important! In the spring, the nitrogen component must prevail in fertilizers, and in summer – phosphates and potash fertilizers.
Since white milk juice appears on the tree, it is recommended to cut it only during the rest phase. It is enough to cut down thick crowns in winter in smokery. Sanitary trimming is better carried out in the fall after the fallout of the leaves at the air temperature is not lower than -10? C. All patients, broken, dried, too thin and growing in Crown shoots are removed. Most likely it is not necessary to make a sanitary cut every year.
In order to grow a low church for one’s own convenience, cutting up the top escape at a height of 135-170 cm, and form from 8-10 skeleton from branches.
Please note!With a strong trimming of mulberries, it should be borne in mind that next year the plant will bring significantly less fruit.
Pests of a tute tree
In general, the silky is a strong plant that is rarely amazed by diseases. The first two or three years, young plants should be protected from snails. The leaves of the tute tree are an important source of food for many caterpillars.
Black spots on the leaves are caused by an attack of bacteria. Cellic ticks that settle on the silky form the finest web from the web, which is a sign of the presence of these smallest, very dangerous pests. Pliers are powered by the cellular juice of mulberry leaves and make punctures in them, from which the leaves will be raised and after a while fall.
In the young age of silky, somewhat sensitive to frost and cold and should receive good winter protection. The tree needs to be protected from frost with a thick layer of mulch from leaves and shelter from the twig. Old tute trees are usually completely frost resistant to -15 ° C.
Additional information! If the young branches are frozen at extremely low temperatures, the strong growth of mulberries in the spring quickly compensates for the loss.
Modified the tute tree from seeds or cuttings. Grown from plant seeds do not preserve the properties of parental plants. Seeds are sown in spring in boxes. They are covered with a layer of soil by about 2 cm and support humidity at a temperature of about 20 ° C on the heat side of the windowsill. The first shoots appear in two or four weeks.
As soon as the first real pair of leaves appears on young seedlings, small plants move to the substrate rich in nutrients. Young plants in the house on the light windowsill are planted on their own, trees next year.
With vegetative cultivation, the tree fertures from the third to the fifth year. For rooting use herbal or half aless branches. In the summer with young, still green shoots cut off the cuttings with a sharp knife.
For successful reproduction, they must be from 10 to 20 cm long. All leaves are removed, except the top pair. Mulberry cuttings can be rooted in a glass with water, or put a substrate in poor nutrients, which is half mixed with sand.
Breeding mulberry with cuttings
Placed on a light place at a temperature of from 15 to 20 ° C and over the next few weeks are kept in a wet state. If the cuttings begin to form fresh leaves, they can be transplanted into pots with potted soil. By the autumn, the cuttings will already begin to form new shoots and the root system, but they cannot be planted in the ground until the next spring.
Mulberry from Chernkov completely inherits signs of the parent plant. High-quality silk seedlings can also be bought in gardening.
Collection and use of mulberry
The shelter collection season begins at the end of June and lasts until the end of August. It is possible to store fruit for a short time, because they quickly become soft. White mulberry taste is sweet, the taste of dark mulberry is usually much fragrant, sour-sweet, juicy and blackberry. Berries can be preserved, cooking jam, juice or fruit wine. Dried mulberry berries can be stored for months.
Useful properties of mulberry
Mulberry has therapeutic effect in various diseases. It is full of nutrients important for the body, including iron, riboflavin, vitamin C, vitamin K, potassium, phosphorus and calcium, as well as a significant amount of fiber and a wide range of organic compounds.
In folk medicine, berries and leaves are used to treat many diseases: ripe berries have a laxative effect on the body, treat constipation, and green – applied with diarrhea and heartburn. The juice of berries diluted with boiled water is used for rinsing with throat diseases.
From the leaves make therapeutic teas and are used at elevated pressure. People with heart disease are recommended to use mulberry berries in large quantities: 300 g 4 times a day for a month. The decoction of dried leaves regulates blood sugar levels, so it is recommended for diabetes and pancreas diseases.
In the case of stress and insomnia, the use of dried berries is shown, since they contain a large number of group vitamins that support the work of the nervous system.
The use of mulberry is recommended for physical overloads and during the recovery period after surgery: incoming magnesium, potassium and quercetin berries have a positive effect on blood formation.
- with individual intolerance;
- Industion of the stomach sometimes occurs when overeating or use immature mulberry;
- Berries and Tooth Tree juice are poorly mixed with other fruits and juices and cause fermentation in the intestines.
Berries need separately – in two hours or after another meal.
The silky is very diverse, and this interesting tree deserves attention and growing in our gardens.