The vine is a very widespread crop. It bears fruit for several decades after planting. Fruits have a high nutritional value, as they contain a lot of vitamins, fiber and antioxidants.
Features of grapes
The vine is a perennial deciduous plant native to Middle Eastern Asia, cultivated since ancient times. Now grapes are grown in temperate climates all over the world.
Grapes come in a variety of varieties, and that makes it so diverse. There are different colors: white, red, black and pink, with or without seeds. Depending on the use, it is divided into wine and table varieties.
The fruits are eaten fresh or made into wine. Wine varieties can also be eaten, as well as dessert canteens. Grapes are very tasty even in dried form like raisins.
Pay attention! Annual shoots during the season turn from green to lignified, and create the production potential of the next year.
Growing grapes in the garden
Grapes can be grown at home, but care requires knowledge and experience. The process of laying a vineyard needs careful planning. The selection of a suitable grape variety depends on the soil and climate of the region.
Grapes are planted in spring or autumn, on the sunny side of the plot, in a place protected from drafts. Growing grapes does not allow partial shade, and in full shade the berries will be small and sour.
The crop can grow on most soils, dry and even limestone, but in any case well drained so that the root system can develop. On fertile soils, the vine has richer vegetation and greater fruiting,
Avoid planting vines in places with high humidity, because it is easily affected by fungal diseases that cause significant damage to the crop.
The landing pit is dug at least 60*60*60 see so that the root system can develop well. 10-15 cm of humus is poured on the bottom and separated by a layer of earth. The roots are slightly pruned and it is desirable to dip them in a root formation stimulator. Fill up to half of the pit with fertile soil, and water it abundantly. They use supports to make the vines grow better.
How and when should the grapes be watered?
Proper watering and fertilizing is an important condition for obtaining a rich grape harvest. Grape plants have a very strong root system and are resistant to lack of water. However, lack of water leads to a slowdown in growth and a decrease in grape yields. Especially in the first 1-2 years after planting, the vine needs watering from spring to autumn.
Grapes belong to a drought-resistant plant, but during the growing season there is a rapid growth of leaves, stems and roots, so the plant must receive moisture. Watering the vine at certain stages helps to increase yields and improve the quality of the grapes produced.
Important! Especially soil moisture is necessary at the stage of fruit setting before the beginning of ripening to ensure a large size of the grape brush.
How should the grapes be watered? In summer, they are watered with warm water, so that the roots do not receive stress from the temperature drop, which can lead to shedding of the ovaries.
It is also important to properly water the grapes in autumn to ensure a good wintering. Insufficiently moistened soil will lead to rapid freezing of the roots. If the autumn turned out to be rainy, then the bush is not watered.
During the ripening period of grapes, excessive watering can lead to a deterioration in yield.
Fertilizers for growing grapes
The vine is sensitive to nutrients and needs fertilizers every year. For a long time, it extracts a large amount of nutrients from the soil, and there are not enough reserves in the soil to obtain high yields. Nutrition affects the size of the bunch, the quality indicators of berries, frost resistance and other signs.
What fertilizers should be applied when growing grapes? A complex fertilizer with a high content of three main elements: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. In addition, it is important that the fertilizer contains magnesium, iron and zinc.
Dates of fertilizing:
- the first nitrogen – during the swelling of the kidneys;
- the second complex – before flowering;
- the third complex – when the berry is at the pea stage;
- the fourth top dressing is only phosphorus and potassium during the coloring period berries;
- The fifth last, exclusively potassium – during the preparation of bushes for winter, after harvesting.
The second and third top dressing can be excluded if the shoots are too powerful – more than 10 mm in diameter. Such shoots ripen poorly and overwinter. The optimal diameter of shoots is 5-10 mm.
Improve the soil by introducing organic matter in the form of manure or compost for autumn digging. Organic matter improves the structure of the soil.
Pruning plays an important role in fruiting and developing the potential of the next year, is carried out every year and is the main step towards obtaining a rich harvest.
Pay attention! If the grapes are not pruned, their vegetation becomes thin and weak. As a result, the bush will yield less harvest, which will not ripen normally and will not acquire a sweet taste.
- winter shaping for the growth and support of the plant during vegetation;
- pruning for fruiting regulates the production and shape of the plant;
- summer or green pruning is aimed at improving the quality and ripening of grapes.
Grape pruning is divided into winter and green pruning. The appropriate time for winter is from mid–January to early March. Forming pruning is carried out in the first three years after planting and is aimed at giving the vine a certain shape.
The main methods of propagation of the vine
To create new grape plants, the cuttings method and the grafting method are mainly used. The propagation of the vine is carried out quite easily and effectively with the help of cuttings. After winter pruning, a part of the stem 30-40 cm long with eyes is planted in a pot with a mixture of soil, manure and sand in a ratio of 2:1:1. The use of the rooting hormone increases the success of reproduction. After a few weeks, the cuttings will take root in the pot, and they can be transplanted into the garden.
Grafting a vine is a rather laborious process that requires experience to be effective. It is applied in early spring to young vine plants planted last year.
Diseases and pests
The vine is affected by fungal diseases, such as false powdery mildew and gray rot.
The most serious damage is caused to foliage and berries. Copper and sulfur are used to fight fungal diseases
Of the insects attacking the vine, the grape worm causes the most damage.
When grapes are harvested
The harvest time depends on the variety, climatic conditions, soil characteristics and cultivation methods. Determine the appropriate time for harvesting when it is sufficiently ripe and has a high sugar content.
Early varieties ripen in July-August, and late – in September-October. Table grapes can be stored in the refrigerator for several days.
Grapes offer many health benefits due to their high content of nutrients and antioxidants, especially vitamins C and K.