Features of growing vegetables in the garden
If you want the freshest vegetables, consider planting your own vegetable garden. Growing your own vegetables economically. Anyone with a small plot of land, but even a simple balcony, can start growing vegetables. When choosing varieties, you should make sure that they are suitable for local climatic conditions.
Vegetable plants can be classified in different ways. They are divided into different families because they share common characteristics. The main division is based on the botanical family to which they belong. Another difference has to do with seasonality. There are spring, summer, autumn and winter vegetables.
Among the cultivated vegetables, the nightshade family is the most represented, which includes potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers. Cucurbitaceae are plants such as squashes and watermelons. The legume family from peas to beans are rich in protein. Umbelliferae, of which carrots and fennel are a part. The leafy vegetable family includes lettuce and spinach. The bulb family includes garlic and onions. All cabbage belongs to the cruciferous family. Rosaceae include berries such as strawberries and raspberries.
How to make a vegetable garden?
A garden for growing vegetables can be made in any size. It can be a real vegetable growing field for sale or a small family plot. A garden with proper planning, even in a small area, will give a good harvest.
How to make beds? When planning the beds, you need to be able to reach the planted vegetables for care and harvest. In large gardens, it is recommended to use the main path with a width of 80 to 100 centimeters.
Fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, and herbs require different conditions for optimal growth. When planning a landing, consider:
- amount of sunlight;
- soil type;
- weather conditions.
A sunny location is a prerequisite for growing vegetables. They need a lot of light to ripen and be juicy and tasty. Spinach, lettuce, peas, kohlrabi, broccoli, beets can grow in partial shade. Perennials will also grow well here.
Fertile soil is the basis for good vegetable crops. Plants draw food and water from the earth. It is they who allow to develop and reach the harvest. Soil analysis will give an idea of soil fertility and pH, as well as what fertilizer or amendment options to take to bring the site back to normal.
The soil must be soft and well structured so that the roots of the plants do not encounter obstacles when penetrating into it. To do this, you need to take care of its processing with tools such as a shovel and a hoe.
In order for the plants to be healthy, there must be enough water in the garden, especially in summer. How much water to give vegetables depends on various factors: climate, soil type, distance between plants. It is important to know how to dose watering and properly moisten the plants.
The best irrigation system is a drip irrigation system, but other methods can be used depending on the size of the area.
Pay attention! Vegetables need to be watered regularly, otherwise the harvest will fail. You can reduce watering with mulching. Mulching is a good way to reduce the need for water in crops, as well as limit the development of weeds.
The nutrition of garden plants is a factor that gardeners should not neglect. The main nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is also important to take into account the many other micronutrients such as iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc that are essential for the proper development of the plant.
More information! Different types of vegetables have different nutrient requirements. It is important to separate types of vegetables into low, medium and high consumers.
Plants that need a lot of nutrients: rhubarb, zucchini, pumpkins, tomatoes, celery and potatoes. After fertilizing the beds with compost in the spring, these plants need to be maintained through the summer.
For plants (carrots, leeks, kohlrabi, beans) that have medium to low nutrient requirements, adding compost in spring is sufficient to meet their nutritional needs. Weak – lettuce, peas, beans, spinach, onions and radishes.
Combining crops and crop rotations
To collect delicious vegetables and fruits, every year you need to change the types of plants in the beds. Crop rotation consists of alternating different plants. Proper crop rotation is the sequence in which crops are grown according to their nutritional needs. Some vegetables absorb nutrients from the soil, while others supplement them. Peas, corn, beets and potatoes enrich the soil, while cabbages, pumpkins and cauliflower deplete it.
To support soil regeneration, alternate plant species in the beds. The easiest way is to divide the bed into four parts and move each group every year.
Garden: planting vegetables
It is important to use friendly plants that can support each other in order to grow vegetables in the same garden for several years. Mixed crops strengthen plants. This biological phenomenon lies in the ability of some plant species to influence the development of others.
Some plants produce substances that can stimulate the growth and development of others. However, in addition to nutrition, they have another very valuable advantage – they protect against pests and diseases.
Plants must belong to different plant families. Otherwise, nutrients will be taken from the garden soil from one side.
- Chives protect cucumbers.
- Garlic and onion are enemies of cabbage and beans.
- Lettuce and spinach release substances into the environment that stimulate the growth of roots of other plants.
- Do not plant carrots next to coriander and cucumbers with tomatoes.
- Beetroot is a good neighbor for almost all vegetables.
- Onions and garlic protect neighbors from fungal diseases (except beans, peas and cabbage).
- Carrots and onions are good neighbors.
- Corn, beans and pumpkin help each other.
- Dill is good for cabbage.
- Together, cabbage and celery are more resistant to pests and diseases.
- It is good to sow radishes where zucchini and pumpkin will later be.
- Beans do not grow near tomatoes and cucumbers
- Cucumbers and dill are great neighbors if you plant dill right in the garden
- Corn and sunflowers protect the lower neighbors from wind and bright sun.
Plants in the same family are susceptible to the same or similar diseases. Thus, pathogens can settle in the ground for a long time, weaken plants and worsen crops.
Ornamental plants in vegetable care
Petunias are planted next to tomatoes, peppers or beans. They do not require special care and protect vegetables from aphids and other insects.
Marigold repels parasites that attack melons and pumpkins, causing them to stop growing and begin to rot and wither before they reach maturity. Unlike other flowers, velvet is known for its specific smell, which is very unpleasant for aphids.
Rosemary produces essential oils in the environment that pests can sense from a distance. Flowering weeds on cucumbers attract ladybugs and other insects that do not harm crops but love aphids. Sage against cabbage moth
Seasons, climate are important factors when creating a vegetable garden. To determine the right moment, it is helpful to refer to the garden calendar for choosing the right time for sowing, transplanting, field work, and harvesting. If the plants are sown at the right time, they will encounter a favorable climate that will allow them to carry out their harvest cycle until the vegetables are ripe, but if the period is not correct (excessive heat or winter frosts) can cause problems and cause the death of vegetables. .
How to increase the available sown area
Even those who do not have free land can make a vegetable garden using pots filled with earth, just by having a terrace or balcony. Of course, growing in containers is not the same as growing outdoors, but it can be the start of a little urban gardening. What vegetables can be grown in pots?
Vegetables that are ideal for growing in containers include tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, green onions, beans, lettuce, squash, radishes, and parsley. String beans and cucumbers also do well, but require more space due to their climbing growth.
Raised beds allow efficient use of space in the garden. Container growing is an easy solution for small gardens that can be used to grow herbs, lettuce, tomatoes and peppers. Choose the appropriate form that will meet the requirements.
What you need to take care of when growing vegetables
Check vegetables for pests once a week. It is often enough to shake off the first pests by hand or spray them with a garden hose before they multiply and destroy the entire crop. You can also strengthen plants in a timely manner with natural remedies such as manure, compost, and control pests. Plant extracts, which have an insecticidal effect, allow treatment that does not harm the environment.
Causes of poor harvest
There are many reasons for poor harvest in vegetable growing, depending on the soil, climate, water supply and other reasons. But serious mistakes can be avoided.
The mistake that all gardeners make after winter is to start gardening too early. Better to be patient a little longer. Vegetables grown too early in a greenhouse often become thin and long. The reason is the lack of light, because the days are still too short. You can grow some vegetables earlier, such as eggplant or artichokes.
Do not plant frost-sensitive vegetables in the garden until mid-May, such as cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, as there may still be night frosts.
Plants planted too tightly can thrive, weaken, or stretch out to get more light. They become more susceptible to disease.
An important condition for a good harvest is regular watering. In addition, vegetable plants are preferably watered at the root ball, and not over the leaves with a sprinkler. Wet leaves often lead to fungal diseases. The best time for watering is morning.
Wrong location. Almost all vegetables need about six hours of sun a day. Penumbra tolerate only spinach and lettuce.
The importance of soil. Use fertile organic soil without weeds, which will increase the yield of plants. Weeds are strong competitors for light and nutrients in the garden. Since wild herbs reproduce very quickly, weed them before they bloom and form seeds.
Vegetables need nutrients. Without improving the soil, there will be no successful harvest in the garden. It is best to fertilize the soil in the garden with compost. Spring is the best time for this. But even in summer, it makes sense to repeatedly support the plants with a small amount of humus.
Many vegetables need support. Tomatoes need support, cucumbers, beans and melons also grow better up than on the ground.