Features of coniferous trees in the garden
Conifers are evergreen plants belonging to the gymnosperms family. This botanical group includes numerous tree species: spruces, larches, pines, sequoias and cypresses. There are also shrub forms, such as juniper, mountain pine.
Their main characteristic is their rapid growth, rich and dense green crown, as well as their resistance to very low temperatures. In the recreation area, they create a natural shade and coolness. Thanks to their root system, they delay and prevent soil erosion.
Pay attention! ХConiferous trees grow best in cold areas. They need a cool growing environment and lush green foliage. When planted in hot areas, they face adaptation problems, may appear as yellow and brown drying spots on the foliage.
Causes of shrinkage of coniferous trees
Conifers are easy to care for. Nothing makes a garden look as neglected as brown conifers. The cause of yellowing and wilting of the shoots may be improper planting, care errors or pathogens. Whatever the reason, quick intervention is required to save the plants.
The main reasons for the drying out of conifers: lack or excess of water in the summer months. High temperatures and lack of watering can cause part of the crown to dry out.
Conifers react to the drying of the substrate, it must be constantly wet. Lack of water can cause plants to dry out during the hot season. When the plants are under the scorching sun, yellowing appears on the foliage in the form of burns.
The problem of drying out is much easier to solve than the waterlogging of the roots from excessive watering. One of the mistakes is that a weak or drying plant needs more water. When the air spaces in the substrate are completely filled with water, the roots do not have access to the oxygen they need and the plant suffocates irreparably.
When this happens, the roots lose their ability to absorb water and nutrients, and the leaves begin to turn yellow. With excess water or poor soil drainage, the roots can rot within a few days. The only possible treatment is prevention, checking the drainage before planting and improving it.
Pay attention! The reason that the roots suffer from waterlogging does not have to be overwatering. Perhaps the soil is too clayey and heavy and does not have the ability to drain water sufficiently. Similarly, uneven terrain with pits will cause irrigation and rain water to accumulate in certain places.
How and when to fertilize conifers? Nitrogen fertilizers are applied from April to mid-July, and non-nitrogen fertilizers – later. Lack of essential nutrients responsible for the production of chlorophyll will lead to discoloration of trees.
Magnesium deficiency, an essential plant nutrient, is one of the most common causes of yellowing of conifers. Due to the lack of magnesium, the tips begin to dry. The most effective way to prevent and treat this is to use a fertilizer containing magnesium, nitrogen and sulfur.
Important! Dry plants should not be fertilized to further weaken them. Their yellowing and browning is a common symptom of improper fertilization
An excess of nutrients is just as dangerous as their deficiency. Excessive doses of mineral fertilizers disrupt the absorption of macro-microelements and water from the soil, which leads to yellowing and drying.
Nutrient deficiencies often result not only from errors in fertilization, but also from insufficient soil pH. In calcium-rich soils, the pH is too high and iron deficiency occurs. On the other hand, when the pH is too low, magnesium absorption is difficult. In such cases, instead of applying complex fertilizers, the soil pH should be adjusted.
Lack of space
This problem causes the same symptoms as a lack of magnesium and other nutrients. Coniferous trees planted close together end up withering because there is simply nowhere for them to grow.
It is very important to know what sizethe species that they want to plant will reach, and what distance is needed between the specimens. If they have already been planted, then some need to be removed.
Fungal disease of conifers
Phytophora and serido fungi are the main killers of conifers that grow in conditions of humidity, heat and poor ventilation. Phytophorosis is a dangerous fungal disease of conifers that develops mainly from the root system and appears on plants in July or August. They are visible on shoots that grow low above the ground, gradually moving from the bottom of the foliage towards the top.
Seridium causes ulcers and cracks in wood. The bark becomes reddish brown and brittle. Another sign of a fungal infection is resin after pruning. If the resin and tissues in this area turn brown or reddish, then fungus has entered there. In this case, you may have to resort to specific fungicides.
Treated with fungicides every 20 days, except for winter. Use cutting tools, previously disinfected with pharmaceutical alcohol. If you know which type of fungus is attacking, you need to find a specific fungicide, as it will be more effective and faster.
A humid climate and a moderately warm season favor their growth. To reduce the risk of fungal diseases, waterlogging of the roots should be avoided in the first place.
An important process is also the removal and destruction of all diseased parts of the plant, as soon as the first symptoms of infection are noticed. For preventive purposes, healthy plants should be sprayed with a natural biological product. Biosept Active makes plants resistant to diseases.
The reason why coniferous trees can dry out is due to insect infestation by scale insects and cotton.
How conifers are treated after identifying the cause of drying
A coniferous tree is difficult to replace, as the roots grow quite strongly. In most cases, they can be restored. Recovery is possible subject to the following rules:
- prepare the soil for planting, rich in nutrients, aerated and well-drained;
- The substrate is allowed to dry a little before watering;
apply commercial or homemade fungicides to get rid of the fungus.
- potassium phosphate – a type of fertilizer that strengthens the defenses of plants, applied against fungal attacks;
- Always disinfect tools before and after each pruning to avoid accidentally infecting plants.
Fight against water shortage. Coniferous trees need regular watering. Water at least twice a week in the summer season, and always once a week in the spring and autumn seasons. Installing automatic irrigation with a drip system helps to achieve greater efficiency and better water savings.
To combat scab and cotton insects that appear on conifers in early spring and autumn, they are sprayed prophylactically with a solution of potassium-salt soap. Spraying must be repeated after 2 weeks. Spray in the evening at temperatures below 30°C.
Treatment of phytophthora fungus. Once a month in spring and autumn, we spray the foliage with a copper solution and water the roots with a solution of copper sulfate. Preventive watering under the root helps to avoid late blight disease or mild symptoms of drying out.
It is important to avoid dense plantings, as late blight develops more easily due to poor ventilation.
Avoid wetting the foliage with water in the hot summer period. In combination with the intense summer sun, this can cause the rapid development of phytophthora disease and the rapid drying of trees.
If white or gray spots appear on the leaves, you need to act quickly, apply a fungicide as soon as possible. On a small affected area, you can use an ecological homemade dairy fungicide. It is effective and no chemicals are needed.